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Table 3 Secondary outcomes at week 12: group means and mean group differences with 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted for respective baseline value

From: Pulsatile dry cupping in chronic low back pain – a randomized three-armed controlled clinical trial

  Cupping
(n = 33)
Minimal Cupping (n = 32) Control (n = 31) Control vs. Cupping Control vs. Minimal Cupping Minimal Cupping vs. Cupping
Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean difference (95% CI) p-value Mean difference (95% CI) p-value Mean (95% CI) p-value
VAS pain intensitya 38.0 (29.5;46.5) 41.7 (33.1;50.2) 53.1 (44.8;61.4) 15.1 (3.1;27.1) 0.014 11.5 (− 0.44;23.4) 0.059 3.7 (−8.6;15.9) 0.554
FFbH-Rb 76.0 (71.6;80.4) 75.6 (71.1;80.1) 70.6 (66.2;75.0) −5.4 (−11.7;0.8) 0.088 −5.0 (− 11.3;1.4) 0.122 −0.4 (−8.8;5.9) 0.890
SF-36b          
Physical Component Summary 44.9 (42.3;47.6) 41.1 (38.3;43.8) 38.8 (36.1;41.1) −6.1 (−9.9;-2.4) 0.002 −2.3 (−6.1;1.5) 0.237 −3.8 (−7.7;-0.03) 0.048
Mental Component Summary 46.7 (43.2;50.1) 45.8 (42.2;49.3) 48.4 (45.0;51.8) 1.8 (−3.1;6.6) 0.477 2.6 (−2.3;7.6) 0.291 −0.9 (−5.8;4.0) 0.719
SF-36 subscalesb          
General health 61.0 (56.5;65.5) 56.2 (51.5;60.9) 51.6 (47.1;56.1) −9.4 (−15.8;-3.0) 0.004 −4.6 (−11.2;2.0) 0.167 −7.8 (− 11.3;1.8) 0.152
Mental health 68.6 (63.6;73.6) 64.8 (59.7;70.0) 67.4 (62.4;72.4) −1.2 (−8.3;5.8) 0.732 2.4 (−4.6;9.7) 0.486 −3.7 (−10.9;3.4) 0.302
Bodily pain 58.1 (51.7;64.6) 48.9 (42.2;55.5) 46.0 (39.5;52.3) −12.2 (−21.3;-3.1) 0.009 −2.9 (− 12.1;6.4) 0.539 −9.3 (− 18.5;-0.03) 0.049
Physical functioning 75.2 (68.3;82.1) 74.3 (67.2;81.4) 67.4 (60.5;74.3) −7.8 (−17.5;1.9) 0.114 −6.9 (−16.9;3.0) 0.167 −0.9 (− 10.8;9.1) 0.863
Role: Emotional 69.0 (55.9;82.1) 68.5 (54.9;82.1) 73.0 (59.9;86.2) 4.1 (−14.5;22.6) 0.665 4.5 (−14.4;23.4) 0.634 −0.5 (−19.4;18.4) 0.959
Role: Physical 71.0 (58.8;83.3) 49.8 (37.2;62.5) 55.0 (42.7;67.2) −16.1 (−33.4;1.3) 0.069 5.1 (−12.5;22.7) 0.563 −21.2 (− 38.8;-3.6) 0.019
Social functioning 75.0 (67.4;82.5) 70.4 (62.5;78.2) 74.7 (67.1;82.3) −0.3 (−11.0;10.5) 0.960 4.3 (−6.7;15.4) 0.435 −4.6 (−15.5;6.3) 0.403
Vitality 50.9 (45.5;56.4) 47.8 (42.2;53.4) 46.8 (41.4;52.2) −4.1 (−11.8;3.5) 0.286 −1.0 (−8.8;6.8) 0.799 −3.2 (− 10.9;4.6) 0.424
  1. aLower values indicate better status, bhigher values indicate better status