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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes at week 4: group means and mean group differences with 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted for respective baseline value

From: Pulsatile dry cupping in chronic low back pain – a randomized three-armed controlled clinical trial

  Cupping
(n = 33)
Minimal Cupping
(n = 32)
Control (n = 31) Control vs. Cupping Control vs. Minimal Cupping Minimal Cupping vs. Cupping
Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean difference (95% CI) p-value Mean difference (95% CI) p-value Mean difference (95% CI) p-value
VAS pain intensitya(primary outcome) 34.9 (28.7;41.2) 40.4 (34.2; 46.7) 56.1 (49.8;62.4) 21.2 (12.2;30.1) < 0.001 15.7 (6.9;24.4) 0.001 5.5 (−3.5; 14.5) 0.225
FFbH-Rb 76.0 (72.1;80.0) 74.2 (70.2;78.2) 70.2 (66.1;74.3) -5.8 (−11.5;-0.1) 0.045 −4.0 (−9.7;1.7) 0.171 −1.8 (−7.5;3.8) 0.517
SF-36b          
Physical Component Summary 43.8 (41.3;46.4) 39.5 (37.0;42.1) 38.2;(35.6;40.9) −5.6 (−9.3;-2.0) 0.003 −1.3 (−5.0;2.4) 0.478 −4.3 (−7.9;-0.7) 0.021
Mental Component Summary 50.1 (47.0;53.2) 47.1 (44.0;50.3) 47.6 (44.4;50.8) −2.5 (−6.9;2.0) 0.270 0.5 (−4.0;5.0) 0.820 −3.0 (−7.4;1.4) 0.179
SF-36 subscalesb          
General health 63.2 (58.8;67.6) 55.2 (50.6;59.8) 56.8 (52.2;61.4) −6.4 (−12.7;0.02) 0.051 1.7 (−4.9;8.2) 0.617 −8.0 (− 14.4;-1.6) 0.015
Mental health 70.8 (66.3;75.2) 66.2 (61.7;70.8) 65.8 (61.2;70.4) −5.0 (− 11.4;1.5) 0.128 − 0.4 (−6.9;6.0) 0.897 −4.5 (−10.9;1.8) 0.160
Bodily pain 56.1 (50.8;61.4) 48.9 (43.5;54.3) 42.3 (36.9;47.8) −13.7 (−21.4;-6.1) 0.001 −6.5 (− 14.2;1.1) 0.093 −7.2 (− 14.7;0.4) 0.063
Physical functioning 74.7 (68.4;81.0) 69.3 (62.9;75.7) 68.8 (62.3;75.2) −6.0 (−15.0;3.1) 0.192 −0.6 (−9.7;8.6) 0.905 −5.4 (− 14.4;3.6) 0.234
Role: Emotional 79.3 (67.6;91.0) 69.2 (57.3;81.1) 70.1 (57.8;82.4) −9.2 (−26.2;7.8) 0.284 0.9 (−16.2;18.0) 0.918 −10.1 (−26.8;6.6) 0.233
Role: Physical 68.0 (56.4;79.6) 48.6 (36.8;60.3) 45.3 (33.3;57.2) −22.7 (−39.4;-6.1) 0.008 −3.3 (− 20.1;13.5) 0.699 −19.4 (− 35.9;-3.0) 0.021
Social functioning 79.8 (73.1;86.5) 69.1 (62.3;76.0) 72.4 (65.5;79.3) −7.4 (−17.0;2.2) 0.131 3.3 (−6.5;13.0) 0.510 −10.6 (−20.2;-1.0) 0.03
Vitality 53.8 (49.4;58.2) 46.5 (42.1;50.9) 44.4 (39.9;48.9) −9.3 (−15.6;-3.0) 0.004 −2.0 (−8.4;4.3) 0.526 −7.3 (−13.5;-1.1) 0.022
Pain rescue medication (count of pills, Paracetamol) 4.6 (−1.0;12.0) 5.6 (−0.7;12.0) 11.9 (6.7;17.1) 7.3 (−0.4;15.0) 0.063 6.3 (−2.0;14.5) 0.133 1.0 (−7.5;9.5) 0.814
  1. aLower values indicate better status, bhigher values indicate better status