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Table 3 Log10 HA titer from HA assay in combined treatments with virus compared to virus control group

From: South African medicinal plant extracts active against influenza A virus

  Treatment Extract type Log HA (mean ± SD)
    Co-pen Pre-pen Post-pen
Combined treatments Pittosporum viridiflorum, 2 Cold water 1.51 ± 1.17 1.20 ± 0.93** 1.30 ± 1.02*
Pittosporum viridiflorum, 3 Acetone 0.90 ± 0.97** 1.00 ± 1.12** 1.00 ± 0.82**
Pittosporum viridiflorum, 4 30% ethanol 1.61 ± 1.24 0.60 ± 0.93** 0.60 ± 0.93**
Pittosporum viridiflorum, 5 100% ethanol 0.90 ± 1.17** 1.00 ± 1.12** 1.00 ± 1.12**
Pittosporum viridiflorum, 6 Methanol 1.51 ± 1.17 1.30 ± 1.02* 1.00 ± 0.78**
Cussonia spicata, 9 Acetone 1.40 ± 1.09 1.30 ± 1.02* 1.51 ± 1.17
Cussonia spicata, 11 100% ethanol 1.61 ± 1.24 1.81 ± 0.47 1.61 ± 1.24
Cussonia spicata, 12 Methanol 1.61 ± 1.24 2.01 ± 0.41 1.61 ± 1.02
Rapanea melanophloeos, 13 Methanol 0.00 ± 0.00** 0.60 ± 0.93** 0.30 ± 0.00**
Tabernaemontana ventricosa, 14 Methanol 2.31 ± 0.16 2.21 ± 0.16 2.31 ± 0.16
Clerodendrum glabrum, 15 Methanol 1.40 ± 0.78 1.91 ± 0.56 1.51 ± 1.17
Amantadine hydrochloride 0.60 ± 0.93** 0.80 ± 0.82** 0.90 ± 0.97**
Oseltamivir carboxylate 0.60 ± 0.93** 0.60 ± 0.93** 0.70 ± 1.09**
No extract treatment Influenza virus 2.51 ± 0.31 2.51 ± 0.31 2.51 ± 0.31
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD are averages of 3 independent HA titration. *, **: Significantly and highly significantly different from values obtained for extract-treated samples compared to virus inoculated untreated sample (P ≤ 0.05 & P ≤ 0.01) analyzed by SPSS, LSD post-hoc test