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Fig. 6 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 6

From: Anacardic acid inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth, and potentiates chemotherapeutic effect by Chmp1A - ATM - p53 signaling pathway

Fig. 6

Schematic diagram showing the working hypothesis of Anacardic Acid. As shown in the diagram, AA inhibits pancreatic cancer growth by the increase of Chmp1A protein, which leads to phosphorylation of ATM, an indication of activation. Phospho- ATM then induces activation of p53 via phosphorylation of p53 (shown in short black arrows). 5- FU or GEM may utilize the similar signaling pathway as AA for its anticancer action, increasing Chmp1A protein to activation of ATM and p53 (shown in short red arrows). Subsequently, AA synergizes with 5-FU or GEM (indicated as double headed black arrows), and increases the activation of signaling pathway and cancer cell grwoth inhibition (shown as black and red arrows together). Black arrows indicate signaling activities for both sufficient and necessary action, and red for sufficient action only

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