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Table 1 Characteristics of the enrolled randomized controlled trials

From: Treatment of depression with Chai Hu Shu Gan San: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 randomized controlled trials

Study ID Sample size (I/C) Gender (M/F) Age Intervention Group Controlled Group Syndrome Differentiation Course of Treatment Following-up Outcomes
HAMD Mean score (SD) Effective Rate
(events/total)
Adverse Effect
Depression
 Cheng XY 2007 [7] 33/30 I:18/15;
C:16/14
I:37.1 ± 7.6;
C:36.7 ± 8.7
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Y 6 weeks N 6.32(2.33) vs 7.01(3.45) NR I: somnolence, dry mouth and sleepy;
C: insomnia, blurred vision, nausea, headache.
(Case unknown)
 Lin B 2011 [8] 30/30 I:13/17;
C:15/15
I:52.13 ± 4.31;
C:50.43 ± 4.80
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine Y 20 days N 11.53(7.41) vs 13.23(6.99) 26/30 vs 5/30 NR
 Liu YY 2012 [9] 31/32 I:11/19;
C:12/20
I:40.5 ± 9.9;
C:36.6 ± 15.0
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Venlafaxine Venlafaxine Y 4 weeks N 5.9(4.6) vs 8(5.6) NR NR
 Wang RC 2013 [10] 40/40 I:18/22;
C:21/19
I:33.6 ± 10.75;
C:34.70 ± 11.23
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine Y 6 weeks N 7.21(4.23) vs 7.52(3.79) 33/40 vs 34/40 I: slight headache, tiredness,constipation, sweat, bitter taste;
C: dry mouth, constipation, excitement and agitation, insomnia, dizziness, headache, palpitation, quiver, nausea, vomit, sexuality descent, ejaculation inhibition, female sexual lack. (Case unknown)
 Shao XQ 2016 [11] 15/13 I:8/7;
C:7/6
I:37.4 ± 7.53;
C:36.7 ± 7.61
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine Y 6 weeks 6 months 9.51(4.84) vs 10.24(4.01) 14/15 vs 12/13 No adverse effect reported in intervention group;Nausea, anorexia, headache, sexual dysfunction reported in control group (Case unknown)
 Gu XX 2016 [12] 30/30 I:18/12
C:16/14
I:33.1 ± 14.4
C:32.8 ± 17.1
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Mirtazapine Mirtazapine N 8 weeks N 7.82(1.56) vs 15.88 (1.42) 27/30 vs 24/30 Appetite increased, weight gain, edema, nausea, dry mouth, sleep disorders (Case unknown)
 Hu J 2015 [13] 48/48 I:20/28
C:22/26
I:38.56 ± 12.23
C:39.89 ± 11.83
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine N 6 weeks N 9.65(3.44) vs C:8.98(4.32) 43/48 vs 42/48 NR
 Liu CY 2015 [14] 35/34 I:21/14C:19/15 I:49.12 ± 7.64
C:48.46 ± 7.25
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Amitriptyline Amitriptyline Y 3 months N 4.83(1.37) vs 4.79(1.02) 33/35 vs 28/34 constipation (I = 1 vs C = 7/34); dry mouth (I = 0 vs C = 4); dizzy(I = 1 vs C = 5);electrocardiographic abnormality (I = 1 vs C = 6)
 Deng SZ 2012 [15] 53/48 I:28/25;
C:23/25
NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Citalopram Citalopram Y 8 weeks N 6.07(1.86) vs 9.38(2.27) 49/53 vs 37/48 NR
 Song YM 2011 [16] 30/30 I:11/19;
C:12/18
I:46.5 ± 6.3;
C:45.3 ± 7.2
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine Y 4 weeks N 14.8(3.3) vs 17.6(2.8) 28/30 vs 24/30 NR
 Fan QL 2008 [17] 70/35 I:28/42;
C:13/22
I:67.5;
C:67.5
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine Y 3 months N NR 69/70 vs 29/35 NR
 Deng GQ 2013 [18] 30/30 I:13/17;
C:12/18
I:38.5 ± 10.4;
C:40.2 ± 12.1
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine Y 6 weeks N 8.9(3.5) vs 9.7(2.8) 24/30 vs 22/30 NR
 Wang L 2012 [19] 30/30 I:12/18;
C:14/16
NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Y 4 weeks N NR 28/30 vs 25/30 Insomnia, mental tension, nausea, headache (C = 9 vs I = 3)
Post-stroke Depression
 Chang XH 2010 [20] 50/50 I:31/19;
C:28/22
I:42–74;
C:45–75
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Y 28 days N 10.24(3.4) vs 14.2(2.7) 48/50 vs 41/50 NR
 Chen HH 2013 [21] 47/47 I:30/17;
C:29/18
I:67 ± 4;
C:66 ± 5
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine N 4 weeks N 5.82(1.56) vs 6.21(1.38) 43/47 vs 42/47 Nausea (I = 1 vs C = 14), nodal tachycardia (I = 0 vs C = 5), stomach discomfort (I = 2 vs C = 15), dry mouth (I = 2 vs C = 18), somnolence (I = 1 vs C = 15);
 Cui Y 2016 [22] 30/30 I:18/12;
C:16/14
I:52.23 ± 9.90;
C:50.73 ± 10.52
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Escitalopram Oxalate Tablets Escitalopram Oxalate Tablets Y 6 weeks N 8.67(4.97) vs 12.4(6.97) NR no apparent adverse effect in both group.
 He XM 2007 [23] 36/18 I:21/15;
C:11/7
I:53.24 ± 6.31;
C:54.36 ± 4.42
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine N 60 days N 16.41(2.56) vs 22.06(3.35) 32/36 vs 11/18 digestive discomfort (I = 8 vs C = 10), vegetative nerve functional disturbance (I = 10 vs C = 9);
 Huang WX 2010 [24] 32/31 I:17/15;
C:16/15
I:65 ± 4.6;
C:61 ± 5.3
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Deanxit Deanxit Y 8 weeks N 15.6(4.4) vs 16.2(4.9) NR I; dizziness (2 cases), constipation (1 cases);
C: No adverse effect
 Huang YS 2012 [25] 39/39 I:22/17;
C:20/19
I:62.51 ± 7.47;C:61.93 ± 7.82 Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Y 3 months N 9.57(2.11) vs 13.08(2.58) 35/39 vs 32/39 I: No adverse effect;
C: 6 cases with dry mouth, nausea, vomit, appetite reduced, insomnia, headache, tiredness.
 Lian Z 2009 [26] 30/30 I:17/13;
C:16/14
I:56.20 ± 18.6;
C:54.6 ± 17.5
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine N 60 days N 6.21(2.53) vs 12.1(1.25) 26/30 vs 24/30 gastrointestinal discomfort (I = 6 vs C = 14), Autonomic nerve dysfunction (I = 7 vs C = 16)
 Wang GL 2009 [27] 66/66 I:24/40;
C:28/38
I:63.5 ± 2.3;
C:64.5 ± 3.4
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Paroxetine Paroxetine Y 6 weeks N 7.2(2.1) vs 10.1(1.7) 62/66 vs 52/66 NR
 Ji XL 2013 [28] 30/30 I:18/12
C:17/13
NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine Y 30 days N 9.1(3.2) vs 13.3(3.5) 25/30 vs 19/30 NR
 Zhang FH 2013 [29] 40/40 I:18/22
C:16/24
I:66.3;
C:65.8
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Deanxit Deanxit Y 6 weeks N 14.2(2.1) vs 17.3(2.6) 36/40 vs 31/40 NR
 Ren MJ 2015 [30] 36/36 41/31 58.6 ± 2.1 Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine Y 30 days N 8.2(2.6) vs 14.1(2.8) 35/36 vs 30/36 Dry mouth, nausea, anorexia, fatigue (I = 0 vs C = 4)
Postnatal Depression
 Zhao XP 2006 [31] 45/42 I:0/45;
C:0/42
I:29.04 ± 3.99;
C:29.12 ± 4.26
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine Y 4 weeks N 9.18(5.72) vs 11.36(5.73) 43/45 vs 39/42 Nausea, appetite descent, anxiety, somnipathy, quiver (Case unknown).
 Zhao Y 2016 [32] 41/42 I:0/41;
C:0/42
I:28.94 ± 5.03;
C:30.12 ± 4.3
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Fluoxetine Fluoxetine N 8 weeks N 8.31(2.05) vs 13.96(2.16) NR Dry mouth, dizziness, nausea, tiredness, somnolence, quiver (I = 3 vs C = 10)
Cancer and Depression
 Fang XH 2013 [33] 45/45 I:17/28;
C:24/21
I:42.3 ± 18.1;
C:47.6 ± 16.9
Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine N 6 weeks N 11.78(3.21) vs 13.98(2.12) 38/45 vs 34/45 Dry mouth (I = 2 vs C = 3), constipation (I = 2 vs C = 0), dizziness and headache (I = 3 vs C = 2),insomnia (I = 4 vs C = 1), gastrointestinal dysfunction (I = 7 vs C = 2), blurred vision (I = 2 vs C = 0)
Epilepsy and Depression
 Huang XB 2015 [34] 62/60 64/58 37.28 ± 7.29 Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine N 12 weeks N 17.68(1.95) vs 22.12(1.9) 41/57 vs 25/54 NR
Chronic Pelvic Inflammation and Depression
 Li L 2006 [35] 38/36/38 I:0/38;
C1:0/36;
C2:0/38
N/A Chai Hu Shu Gan San C1: Paroxetine; C2: No Intervention N 6 weeks N 17.71(3.91) vs C1:18.55(4.51); C2: 22.00(3.91) 34/38 vs C1:28/36; C2:18/38 NR
Post-PCI and Depression
 Wang YT 2016 [36] 30/30 NA NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San Deanxit N 4 weeks N 15.73(6.05) vs 14.77(6.84) 25/30 vs 23/30 NR
COPD and Depression
 Yang G 2011 [37] 40/40 I:24/16;
C:22/18
I:62.37 ± 6.78;
C:63.6 ± 7.25
Chai Hu Shu Gan San No Intervention N 4 weeks N 14.59(1.12) vs 20.15(1.08) 34/40 vs 20/40 NR
Parkinson and Depression
 Ma YZ 2011 [38] 36/32 NA NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Sertraline Hydrochloride Sertraline Hydrochloride Y 4 weeks N 9.2(3.6) vs 12.3(5.4) NR NR
 Zhou R 2016 [39] 36/36 I:18/18;
C:16/20
NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Duloxetine Duloxetine Y 4 weeks N 15.96(3.96) vs 20.28(3.56) NR Nausea (I = 2 vs C = 2), headache (I = 0 vs C = 1)
 Yang MJ 2010 [40] 30/30 I:18/12; C:17/13 I:62 ± 6.53;
C:62.13 ± 5.92
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Paroxetine Paroxetine Y 8 weeks N 9.02(1.24) vs 13.12(2.72) 27/30 vs 21/30 Dry mouth (I = 2 vs C = 5); fatigue (I = 1 vs C = 3); Nausea (I = 2 vs C = 3); poor appetite (I = 4 vs C = 5); insomnia (I = 2 vs C = 5); constipation (I = 2 vs C = 5)
Piman syndrome and Depression
 Qiu ZJ 2012 [41] 36/36/36 I:17/19;
C1:16/20;
C2:17/19
I:36.17 ± 13.29;
C1:36.17 ± 11.29;
C2:38.83 ± 11.94
Chai Hu Shu Gan San C1:Deanxit;
C2: No Intervention
N 6 weeks N 6.42(3.68) vs C1:5.42(4.14); C2:16.03(4.34) NR Mouth odor, nausea, vomit, inappetence, gastrointestinal dysfunction, diarrhea, constipation in three groups, (Case unknown)
Cerebrovascular disease and Depression
 Yao K 2013 [42] 38/38 I:20/18;
C:19/19
I:65.27 ± 8.35;
C:66.31 ± 7.94
Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Mirtazapine Mirtazapine Y 4 weeks N 12.53(3.17) vs 15.87(3.62) 34/38 vs 30/38 Dry mouth, nausea, constipation (Case unknow)
 Shang GM 2014 [43] 29/29 I:17/12;
C:16/13
I:63.38 ± 10.21; C:62.91 ± 9.83 Chai Hu Shu Gan San Fluoxetine N 4 weeks N NR 27/29 vs 23/29 NR
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Depression
 Zheng YJ 2016 [44] 43/42 I:18/25;
C:17/25
I:32.3 ± 12.6;
C:44.2 ± 7.4
Chai Hu Shu Gan San No Intervention N 8 weeks N 9.2(1.3) vs 14.3(1.8) 40/43 vs 32/42 Nausea (I = 1 vs C = 5), dry mouth (I = 0 vs C = 2), dizziness (I = 0 vs C = 4)
Coronary heart disease and Depression
 Liu YH 2014 [45] 25/24 I:14/11;
C:13/11
I:60.7 ± 13.6;
C:56.8 ± 10.2
Chai Hu Shu Gan San No Intervention N 4 weeks N NR 19/25 vs 9/24 No adverse effect reported in both groups
Rheumatoid arthritis and Depression
 Chen PY 2015 [46] 34/34 NA NA Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine N 6 weeks N 10.68(6.83) vs 19.31(7.69) NR NR
Diabetes and Depression
 Yang YL 2013 [47] 40/38 I:18/22; C:15/23 I:38.70 ± 11.10; C:37.5 ± 11.2 Chai Hu Shu Gan San Paroxetine Y 3 months N 14.12(7.84) vs 22.69(11.66) 38/40 vs 28/38 NR
Cardiac neurosis and Depression
 Pei GX 2013 [48] 60/60 I:18/42; C:24/36 I:42.58 ± 6.12; C:44.32 ± 4.58 Chai Hu Shu Gan San + Deanxit Deanxit Y 8 weeks N 11.42(3.45) vs 13.68(2.74) 57/60 vs 53/60 NR
  1. Note: Y---Yes; N---No; I---Interventional Group; C---Controlled Group; F---Female; M---Male; HAMD---Hamilton Depression Scale; SD---standard deviation; NR--- not reported