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Table 1 Summary of included studies dealing with the reliability of diagnosis in visceral osteopathy

From: Reliability of diagnosis and clinical efficacy of visceral osteopathy: a systematic review

First authors Subjects (number; disease status; age in yrs) Raters (number; degree(s); expertise) Study Characteristics & Parameter(s) Reliability Measure Used Main Results
Landry [16] N = 41; healthy; A = 24. N = 2; last-year osteopathy students; clinical internships. Inter-rater: (1) proximal-duodenum-area mobility; (2) distal-duodenum-area mobility (4 possible modalities for (1) & (2)). Cohens’s kappa Inter: (1): 0.14 (2): 0.0448
Terrier [17] N = 50; patients in osteopathic cares; A = 33 N = 2; last-year osteopathy students; clinical internships. Inter-rater: ascendant-colon-area dynamic (4 possible modalities). Cohens’s kappa Inter: 0.322
Rittler [18] N = 18; osteopathy students with an “osteopathic dysfunction”; not reported. N = 6; osteopaths graduated in 2009; 5 use usually the assessed test and 1 has never used it. Intra & inter-rater: posture variations (“global listening test”; 6 modalities). Cohens’s kappa Intra: from − 0.05 to 0.12
Inter: from − 0.25 to 0.37
Gruber [19] N = 43; 20 healthy and 21 spine-painful patients; A = 30–75 N = 2; osteopaths graduated in 2009; 6 yrs. Intra & inter-rater: abdominal diaphragm tension (2 modalities: symmetrical or asymmetrical). Cohens’s kappa intra: from − 0.02 to 0.57
inter: − 0.35
Cònsol Urgellés [20] N = 40; not reported; A = 33 N = 3; osteopaths; recently graduated. Intra & inter-rater: (1) radial pulse evolution during the Adson-Wright test (or Soto-Hall test) (3 modalities: presence, decrease or abolition);
(2) When (1) is “decrease” or “abolition”, location of the “visceral osteopathic dysfunction”.
Fleiss’kappa Intra: (1) from 0.65 to 1; (2) from 0.63 to 1
Inter: (1) from 0.61 to 0.70; (2) from − 0.14to 0.61
Zeller [21] N = 44; 24 patients with an “asymptomatic hepatic dysfunction” and 20 with a symptomatic hepatic issuea; A = 27–73. N = 2; osteopath-physiotherapists; 2 yrs. in osteopathy and over 10 yrs. in physiotherapy. Inter-rater: hepatic-area mobility (4 modalities). Cohens’s kappa Inter: 0.26
Darty [22] N = 10; healthy; A = 23 N = 12; 5 osteopaths and 7 last-year osteopathy students; not reported. Intra & inter-rater: (1) sensibility; (2) “wall depressibility”; (3) “organ depressibility”; (4) “organ location” ((1),(2), (3), (4) for stomach, caecum, sigmoid and transverse colon; 4 modalities for (1), (2), (3) and distance measure for (4)); (5) “organ volume” (metrical measure; not for stomach). Intra: variation coefficient (VC)
Inter: Student test, correlation coefficient and ICCa.
Intra: (1) & (2) not reported; (3) VC < 1% (all the organs); (4) 10 ≤ VC ≤ 125.11 depending on the organ; (5) 21.13 ≤ VC ≤ 38.12 depending on the organ.
Interb: (1) & (2) not reported; (3) ICC > 0.9 for all the organs; (4) 0,4 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.98 depending on the organ; (5) 0.64 ≤ ICC ≤ 0.99 depending on the organ.
Verbaarschot [23] N = 31; healthy; A = 17–69 N = 2; osteopaths; specifically trained for the study. Intra-rater of: visceral tension (3 modalities: normal, “hypertension” or “hypotension”). Cohens’s kappa Intra: from 0.372 to 0.542
  1. Legend: “N” number; “A” age; “ICC” intraclass correlation coefficient. a No more information are given.b Only the ICC are reported because the other measures are not recommended for reliability [16]