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Table 2 MMSE change between groups with or without herbal medicine

From: Adding Chinese herbal medicine to conventional therapy brings cognitive benefits to patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a retrospective analysis

  MMSE change
CT + H CT   Expected
Follow-up N mean ± SD 95% CI N mean ± SD 95% CI P value  
3 m 121 0.93 ± 2.80 0.43 to 1.43 70 −0.05 ± 3.60 −0.91 to 0.8 0.009 −0.57
6 m 71 0.75 ± 2.90 0.06 to 1.43 33 0.27 ± 3.01 −0.79 to 1.34 0.034 −1.12
9 m 49 0.59 ± 3.01 −0.27 to 1.45 12 −0.41 ± 3.92 −2.9 to 2.07 0.077 −1.64
12 m 52 −0.05 ± 2.85 −0.85 to 0.73 28 −1.03 ± 3.12 −2.24 to 0.17 0.009 −2.17
15 m 53 −0.32 ± 2.41 −0.98 to 0.34 21 −1.95 ± 2.65 −3.16 to −0.74 0.008 −2.89
18 m 26 −1.42 ± 1.79 −2.14 to −0.69 27 −3.18 ± 2.21 −4.04 to −2.32 0.010 −3.43
21 m 23 −1.08 ± 2.36 −1.83 to −0.33 11 −3.36 ± 2.54 −5.07 to −1.65 0.014 −3.65
24 m 30 −1.40 ± 2.37 −2.28 to −0.51 26 −3.92 ± 2.26 −4.83 to −3.01 0.000 −4.52
  1. CT + H, conventional therapy with herbal granule; CT, conventional therapy alone; MMSE, mini-mental state examination. We used linear mixed-effects models for outcome assessment, the differences were adjusted for medical history, baseline MMSE, education and use of donepezil or memantine. Follow-up was not strictly performed at all-time points; the real intervals of monitoring were different