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Table 2 Inositol for reproduction, hyperandrogenism, metabolism, anthropometry and risk factors

From: Nutritional supplements and herbal medicines for women with polycystic ovary syndrome; a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Treatment n*(number of effects)/N Control n* (number of effects)/N Number of RCTs Heterogeneity (I2, p value) Treatment effect MD or RR 95% CI p value
Hyperandrogenism
 Free testosterone nmol/l 55 51 3 [22, 23, 30]
0%, p = 0.94
MD −0.02 −0.10 to 0.06 0.62
 Total testosterone** nmol/l 103 89 5 [34, 36, 41, 45, 54]
32%, p = 0.0009
MD 0.99 −1.54 to −0.44 < 0.001
 Androstenidione nmol/l 73 59 4 [22, 23, 30, 37]
0%, p = 1.0
MD 3.59 −4.62 to −2.55 < 0.001
 Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) nmol/l 55 67 2 [22, 23]
0%, 0.50
MD 40.67 25.83 to 55.50 < 0.001
 Modified Ferriman Gallwey score 30 30 1 [54] MD 0.90 −1.18 to 2.98 0.40
Reproduction
 Number of days to ovulation (number of days) 181 194 2 [24, 25]
0%, p = 0.90
MD 17.7 −31.4 to −4.1 0.01
 Ratio of luteal week to total trial luteal weeks: total trial weeks 166/697 140/1000 2 [24, 25]
0%, p = 0.90
RR 1.7 1.39 to 2.08 < 0.001
 Number of ovulations 25/32 8/32 2 [22, 23]
0%, p = 0.95
RR 3.13 1.68 to 5.83 0.001
 Number of women who did not ovulate 16/181 34/194 2 [24, 25]
0%, p = 0.95
RR 0.5 0.29 to 0.86 0.01
 Pregnancy 18/71 6/63 3 [24, 25, 36]
0%, p = 0.95
RR 2.78 1.19 to 6.5 0.02
 Live births 8/25 3/25 1 [36] RR 2.67 0.80 to 8.90 0.11
 FSH mIU/l 25 25 1 [36] MD 1.4 −1.63 to −1.17 0.001
 LH mIU/l 25 25 1 [36] MD 3.5 −4.9 to −2.1 0.001
 FSH:LH ratio 25 25 1 [36] MD 0.4 −0.68 to −0.12 0.006
Anthropometric
 BMI*** 48 38 2 [37, 54] MD −0.30 −1.10 to 0.50 0.46
57 57 3 [22, 23, 36]
I2 31%, p = 0.24
MD 0.40 −0.07 to −0.86 0.86
 Waist to hip ratio 32 32 2 [22, 23]
0%, p = 0.32
MD −0.02 −0.03 to −0.01 0.01
Metabolic hormones       
 Fasting glucose mmol/l 73 59 4 [22, 23, 30, 37]
0%, P = 0.52
MD 1.17 −1.72 to – 0.63 < 0.001
 Fasting insulin μU/ml 73 59 4 [22, 23, 30, 37]
18%, p = 0.30
MD 2.7 −3.9 to −1.5 < 0.001
 HOMA-IR**** 25 25 1 [36] MD −1.30 −1.60 to −1.00 < 0.001
18 8 1 [37] MD −0.60 −0.89 to – 0.30 < 0.001
Risk factors
 Cholesterol mmol/l 32 32 2 [22, 23]
27%, p = 0.24
MD 0.56 −1.07 to −0.04 0.04
 Triglycerides mg/dL 32 32 2 [22, 23]
8%, p = 0.30
MD 31.6 −61.1 to −2.0 0.04
 HDLmg/dL 22 22 1 [22] MD 0 −4.73 to 4.73 1.0
 LDL mg/dL 22 22 1 [22] MD −2.0 −13.7 to 9.7 0.74
 CRP 30 30 1 MD −2.2 −3.57 to −0.83 < 0.01
  1. *calculated for dichotomous outcomes only
  2. **five trials with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 75%, p = 0.003) following analyses incorporating random effects
  3. ***five trials with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 89%, p < 0.0001) following analyses incorporating random effects, and not combined
  4. **** two trials with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 91%, p-0.0009) following analyses incorporating random effects, and not combined