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Fig. 2 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 2

From: A yeast fermentate improves gastrointestinal discomfort and constipation by modulation of the gut microbiome: results from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial

Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of primary and secondary objectives and instruments used for data/sample collection. Legend: GI, gastrointestinal; PAC-QOL, Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale. a Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by asking the volunteers to grade daily in the evening the average severity over the previous 24 h on a 5-point scale from 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely) for the following 5 GI characteristics: bloating/distension, passage of gas, GI rumbling, feeling of fullness and abdominal discomfort. b Stool consistency was recorded according to the Bristol Stool Form Scale

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