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Table 7 Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture treatment used for LSS: data compiled and structured according to STRICTA standards

From: Survey of integrative lumbar spinal stenosis treatment in Korean medicine doctors: preliminary data for clinical practice guidelines

STRICTA checklist items   Acupuncture    Pharmacopuncture  
Acupuncture rationale 1a) Style of acupuncture Refer to Table 4. 1a) Type of pharmacopuncture Refer to Table 4.
  1b) Reasoning for treatment provided Anatomical structure that is probable cause of symptoms (e.g. shortened quadratus lumborum, shortened psoas muscles)a 85 (69.1) 1b) Reasoning for treatment provided Physical stimulation of solution (i.e. irrigation of inflammation area, desensitization effect brought on through pain on injection) 123 (100)
   Tender points, trigger points, or other points that evoke a painful response on palpation 70 (56.9)    
   Pathological spine level as confirmed through imaging (e.g. level of disc herniation) 63 (51.2)   Chemical efficacy of solution (i.e. pharmaceutical effect of major componants)a 120 (97.6)
   Effective acupoints as observed through clinical experience 47 (38.2)    
   Ashi points (site of pain) 44 (35.8)   Acupuncture effects of pharmacopuncture needle (i.e. effect of pharmacopuncture needle itself) 115 (93.5)
   Acupoints following Korean medicine principle (e.g. GB30, BL40, BL57) 34 (27.6)    
   Academic knowledge from research articles, clinical practice guidelines 14 (11.4)   Placebo effect (i.e. effect from patient expectation) 7 (5.7)
   Knowledge from formal education 12 (9.8)    
Details of needling 2a) Number of needle insertions per patient per session   12.5 ± 5.1 2a) Number of acupoint injections per patient per session (range)   3.1 ~ 6.1
     2a) Amount of pharmacopuncture solution injected per session (range, cc)   1.3 ~ 3.5
  2b) Names of acupoints used Refer to Table 4. 2b) Names of acupoints used Refer to Table 4.
  2c) Depth of insertion
(cm)
  3.2 ± 1.4 2c) Depth of insertion
(range, cm)
  1.7 ~ 3.7
  2d) Responses sought De qi sensation 5.5 ± 1.4    
   Muscle twitch response 5.0 ± 1.4    
  2e) Needle stimulation Motion Style Acupuncture Treatment (MSAT) 51 (41.5)    
   Lifting and thrusting (提揷) 64 (52.0)    
   Holding and twisting (捻轉) 62 (50.4)    
   Percentage of patients receiving electroacupuncture (%) 91.3 ± 19.9    
  2f) Needle retention time (minutes)   14.2 ± 2.0    
  2g) Needle type Diameter of needle (mm) 0.3 ± 0.04    
Treatment regimen 3a) Number of sessions Refer to Table 1.   3a) Number of sessions Refer to Table 1.  
  3b) Frequency of treatment sessions (sessions/week)   1.9 ± 0.4 3b) Frequency of treatment sessions (sessions/week)   1.9 ± 0.4
  3b) Duration of treatment sessions (minutes)   18.7 ± 11.7 3b) Duration of treatment sessions (range, minutes)   2.3 ~ 4.3
Other components of treatment 4a) Other interventions administered Refer to Table 1. 4a) Other interventions administered Refer to Table 1.
Practitioner background 5) Description of participating acupuncturists Refer to Table 1. 5) Description of participating acupuncturists Refer to Table 1.
  1. LSS lumbar spinal stenosis, STRICTA standards for reporting interventions in clinical trials of acupuncture
  2. aFactor most frequently ranked 1st