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Table 4 Diagnostic tools used for LSS and Korean medicine syndrome differentiation

From: Survey of integrative lumbar spinal stenosis treatment in Korean medicine doctors: preliminary data for clinical practice guidelines

Factors n (%)
Tests Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)a 121 (98.4)
  X-ray 116 (94.3)
  Computed tomography (CT) 82 (66.7)
  C-reactive protein (CRP) 12 (9.8)
  Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) 8 (6.5)
  Electromyogram 7 (5.7)
  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) 7 (5.7)
Main points of consideration in MRI reading Degree of nerve compressiona 91 (74)
  Diameter/area of spinal canal 79 (64.2)
  Correlations between level of dysfunctional disc on MRI and clinical symptoms 66 (53.7)
  Degree of degeneration of vertebral body and/or joints (spondylosis) 46 (37.4)
  Number and level of dysfunctional discs (e.g. L1/2 vs. L5/S1) 30 (24.4)
  Degree of intervertebral disc displacement 28 (22.8)
  Degree of intervertebral disc degeneration 16 (13)
  Vertebral alignment 13 (10.6)
Physical examination Straight leg raise test (SLR)a 94 (76.4)
  Manual muscle testing (MMT) 79 (64.2)
  Sensory testing 53 (43.1)
  Heel walk/toe walk 48 (39)
  Valsalva test 14 (11.4)
  Well leg raise test 14 (11.4)
  Milgram’s test 11 (8.9)
  Laseque sign 9 (7.3)
  Deep tendon reflex 9 (7.3)
  Bragard test 8 (6.5)
Korean medicine syndrome differentiation theory Qi and Blood diagnosis (氣血辨證)a 83 (67.5)
  Eight principle pattern identification (八綱辨證) 82 (66.7)
  Meridian system diagnosis (經絡辨證) 82 (66.7)
  Organ system diagnosis (臟腑辨證) 62 (50.4)
  Six meridian diagnosis (六經辯證) 24 (19.5)
  Sasang constitutional medicine diagnosis (四象體質辨證) 21 (17.1)
  Defensive Qi and nutrient Blood diagnosis (衛氣營血辨證) 7 (5.7)
10 Types of LBP from ‘Dongeuibogam (東醫寶鑑)’ LBP from Kidney deficiency (腎虛腰痛) 108 (87.8)
  LBP from Cold pathogen (寒腰痛) 29 (23.6)
  LBP from Dampness pathogen (濕腰痛) 24 (19.5)
  LBP from Phlegm (痰飮腰痛) 20 (16.3)
  LBP from Blood stagnation (瘀血腰痛) 18 (14.6)
  LBP from Wind pathogen (風腰痛) 11 (8.9)
  LBP from Qi (氣腰痛) 5 (4.1)
  LBP from Dampness-Heat pathogen (濕熱腰通) 4 (3.3)
  LBP from contusion (挫閃腰痛) 2 (1.6)
  LBP from retention of food (食積腰痛) 2 (1.6)
  1. LSS lumbar spinal stenosis, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, LBP low back pain
  2. aFactor most frequently ranked 1st