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Table 4 Results of the meta-analysis of the change in SBP (mmHg) in the two subgroup analyses of the three groups of sex and age differences

From: Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study or Subgroup Sinrin-yoku
Total
Control
Total
Weight (%) Mean Difference
IV, Fixed
95% CI
1) Young male (university student) group
Kozaki et al., 2007–2 [21] 11 * 1.4 −1.30 −7.60 - 10.20
Kozaki et al., 2007–1 [21] 11 * 1.2 −1.00 −10.62 - 8.62
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–1 [20, 40] 9 * 3.9 −2.50 −7.87 - 2.87
Furuhashi et al., 2007 [22] 12 * 9.3 −3.90 −7.37 - -0.43
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–2 [20] 11 * 3.8 −6.20 −11.65 - -0.75
Park et al., 2010–2 [23] 75 * 25.0 −2.16 −4.28 - -0.04
Park et al., 2010–1 [23] 268 * 42.3 −2.16 −3.79 - -0.53
Lee et al., 2011 [24] 48 * 13.1 −3.00 −5.92 - -0.08
Total 445 0** 100.0 −2.53 −3.59 - -1.48
2) Middle-aged or older male group
Takeda et al., 2009–1 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 11 * 8.9 1.10 −12.64 - 14.84
Li et al., 2011 [10] 16 * 15.8 −3.00 −13.33 - 7.33
Kondo et al., 2011b [28, 29] 8 * 61.5 −4.00 −9.23 - 1.23
Kondo et al., 2014–1 [16] 7 * 13.8 −10.40 −21.43 - 0.63
Total 42 0** 100.0 −4.27 −8.38 - -0.17
3) Middle-aged or older female group
Takeda et al., 2009–2 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 8 * 19.8 −10.00 −18.35 - -1.65
Kondo et al., 2011a [27, 29] 8 * 43.0 −4.00 −9.66 - 1.66
Kondo et al., 2014–2 [16] 6 * 16.2 −5.50 −14.73 - 3.73
Lee & Lee, 2014 [11] 43 19 21.0 −12.25 −20.36 - -4.14
Total 65 19** 100.0 −7.16 −10.88 - -3.45
  1. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 3.57, df = 7 (P = 0.83); I2 = 0%
  2. Test for overall effect: Z = 4.70 (P < 0.00001)
  3. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 3.28, df = 3 (P = 0.35); I2 = 8%
  4. Test for overall effect: Z = 3.78 (P < 0.0002)
  5. CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom
  6. *Cross-over design (same number as in Shinrin-yoku)
  7. **Total number excluding the cross-over design