Skip to main content

Table 3 Results of the meta-analysis of the change in SBP (mmHg) in the two subgroup analyses of differences in intervention methods (walking and non-walking)

From: Blood pressure-lowering effect of Shinrin-yoku (Forest bathing): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study or Subgroup Sinrin-yoku
Total
Control
Total
Weight (%) Mean Difference
IV, Fixed
95% CI
1) Walking group
Ogushi et al., 2000 [18] 37 20 3.1 −5.00 −14.58 - 4.58
Kozaki et al., 2007–1 [21] 11 * 3.1 −1.00 −10.62 - 8.62
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–1 [20, 40] 9 * 9.9 −2.50 −7.87 - 2.87
Takeda et al., 2009–1 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 11 * 1.5 1.10 −12.64 - 14.84
Takeda et al., 2009–2 [30,31,32,33,34,35] 8 * 4.1 −10.00 −18.35 - -1.65
Park et al., 2010–2 [23] 75 * 63.5 −2.16 −4.28 - -0.04
Li et al., 2011 [10] 16 * 2.7 −3.00 −13.33 - 7.33
Mao et al., 2012 [26] 12 12 2.2 −11.50 −22.87 - -0.13
Kondo et al., 2014–1 [16] 7 * 2.3 −10.40 −21.43 - 0.63
Lee & Lee, 2014 [11] 43 19 4.3 −12.25 −20.36 - -4.14
Kondo et al., 2014–2 [16] 6 * 3.3 −5.50 −14.73 - 3.73
Total 235 51** 100.0 −3.48 −5.17 - -1.80
2) Non-walking group
Takayanagi & Hagihara, 2005 [19] 12 12 0.8 −6.10 −19.02 - 6.82
Kozaki et al., 2007–2 [21] 11 * 1.8 −1.30 −7.60 - 10.20
Tsunetsugu et al., 2007–2 [20] 11 * 4.7 −6.20 −11.65 - -0.75
Furuhashi et al., 2007 [22] 12 * 11.6 −3.90 −7.37 - -0.43
Park et al., 2010–1 [23] 268 * 52.9 −2.16 −3.79 - -0.53
Kondo et al., 2011b [27,28,29] 8 * 5.1 −4.00 −9.23 - 1.23
Lee et al., 2011 [24] 48 * 16.4 −3.00 −5.92 - -0.08
Kondo et al., 2011a [27, 29] 8 * 4.4 −4.00 −9.66 - 1.66
Sung et al., 2012 [25] 28 28 2.3 −8.70 −16.48 - -0.92
Total 406 40** 100.0 −2.99 −4.17 - -1.80
  1. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 12.85, df = 10 (P = 0.23); I2 = 22%
  2. Test for overall effect: Z = 4.05 (P < 0.0001)
  3. Heterogeneity: Chi2 = 6.05, df = 8 (P = 0.64); I2 = 0%
  4. Test for overall effect: Z = 4.95 (P < 0.00001)
  5. CI, confidence interval; df, degrees of freedom
  6. *Cross-over design (same number as in Shinrin-yoku)
  7. **Total number excluding the cross-over design