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Table 9 Summarizes published cosmeceutical and skin uses of these frequently used plants

From: Ethnopharmacological survey of home remedies used for treatment of hair and scalp and their methods of preparation in the West Bank-Palestine

Plant species Reported ethnopharmacological use with reference source Cosmeceutical and skin uses with reference source Side effects and toxicity with reference source
Olea europaea Reported usage in ethnomedicine in Palestine [23], Italy [24], Spain, and other Mediterranean areas [25]. To prevent hair loss and skin cleanser [26]. Leaves cause hepato-cellular and renal abnormality [27].
Lawsonia inermis Reported in Africa [28], Southern Asia specially India [29], Palestine [30], and worldwide [31]. Coloring material, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory [32]. It may cause loss of body balance, and paralysis [33].
Ricinus communis Reported in India [23] Reported its anti-inflammatory [34], antimicrobial and antifungal activities [35]. No significant toxic effects [36].
Allium sativum Reported in developing countries [37] Reported as antiseptic and expectorant [38] Reported to have toxic potential, with a demonstrated capability to alter biochemical indices in vital tissues [39]
Aloe vera Reported in southern Africa [40], Nigeria [41], Mediterranean countries [42], Asia [43] and
India [44]
Reported in treatment of dry skin, improve the skin integrity, decrease appearance of acne wrinkle and decrease erythema [45] Overdose reported to lead to colicky abdominal spasms and pain, as well as the formation of thin, watery stools [46]
Cocos nucifera Reported in Southeast Asia [47], India [48], Africa [49], and American continent [50]. Reported as Anti-bacterial, antifungal [51], preventing hair loss, wound healing, and dermatitis [52], . Low toxicity effect reported [53].
Trigonella arabica Reported in India, Africa [54], and Egypt [55]. Treatment of inflammation [56] Administration at higher dose induced toxicity including teratogenic, foetotoxic, reproductive changes and the abnormal shapes of the sperms [57]
Prunus dulcis Reported in Iraq [58] and Lebanon [59] and well known
Worldwide
High antioxidant activity [60] and used for premature hair fall [61] No reference
Citrus limon Reported throughout the world [62] Skin care and anti-oxidants [62]. No reference
Pimpinella anisum Reported in Mediterranean Region [63], Palestine [64], the Middle East [65]
and Spain [63]
Reported to have insecticidal effect [66], antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect [67], No reference
Punica granatum Reported in India [68], Algeria [69], Africa [70], America [71], Spain [72]. Evidence for in vitro assay activity as antioxidant [73] and protects against the adverse effects ultraviolet radiation [74, 75]. Considered as non-toxic [76, 77]
Sesamum indicum Reported in India [78], USA [79], Pakistan [80], Africa [81], China [82] and Sudan [83]. Reported to have antioxidant activity [84] and wound healing [85]. Practically non-toxic [86].