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Fig. 4 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 4

From: Xue-fu-Zhu-Yu decoction protects rats against retinal ischemia by downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF via inhibition of RBP2 and PKM2

Fig. 4

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, red) immunohistochemistry. a is the retina subjected to the sham procedure (Sham) and the cellular nucleus is labeled with 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI, blue). b shows the amacrine cell bodies (Sham; arrow heads) located in the INL and the GCL and their neuronal fibers (arrows); these demonstrate two distinct bands in the IPL. c is from the retina that received I/R and preischemia administration of vehicle; there is a drastic decrease in the IPL immunolabelling as well as the amacrine cell body number. d, e, f are sections from the retinas that received I/R and preischemia administration of 1.35 g/kg/day XFZYD (d, XFZYD1.35 + I/R), 2.7 g/kg/day XFZYD (e, XFZYD2.7 + I/R) or postischemia administration of 2.7 g/kg/day XFZYD (f, I/R + XFZYD2.7). Moreover, these ischemia-induced alterations were clearly and dose-dependently alleviated when the ischemic retinas were preadministrated with 1.35 and 2.7 g/Kg/day XFZYD. Postischemia administration of 2.7 g/Kg/day XFZYD also clearly attenuated these ischemia-induced alterations. Each bar represents the mean values ± SD (n = 4) following the sham procedure or I/R (g). ** indicates significance (p < 0.01; Sham vs. Vehicle + I/R). † or †† indicates significance (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01; Vehicle + I/R vs. XFZYD1.35 + I/R, XFZYD2.7 + I/R or I/R + XFZYD2.7). The area of one field is approximately 0.25 mm2. Abbreviations: ONL, outer nuclear layer, OPL, outer plexiform layer, INL, inner nuclear layer, IPL, inner plexiform layer, GCL, ganglion cell layer. XFZYD, Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction. Scale bar = 50 μm

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