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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression predicting meditation practices, exclusive use of one meditation style during the previous 12 months

From: Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States

  Mantra Mindfulness Spiritual
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Demographics
Age
 18–24 Reference   
 25–44 1.13 (0.38, 3.39) 0.70 (0.34, 1.42) 1.19 (0.69, 2.08)
 45–64 1.47 (0.47, 4.59) 0.76 (0.36, 1.62) 1.31 (0.74, 2.32)
 65 or above 0.76 (0.18, 3.16) 0.19 (0.05, 0.71)* 1.10 (0.53, 2.26)
Gender
 Male Reference   
 Female 1.11 (0.64, 1.92) 1.17 (0.63, 2.16) 1.54 (1.15, 2.06)**
Race1
 White Reference   
 Black 0.37 (0.12, 1.17) 0.51 (0.22, 1.22) 0.91 (0.64, 1.30)
 Asian 0.85 (0.36, 2.01) 0.51 (0.23, 1.11) 0.62 (0.38, 1.01)
 AIAN/multiple race 0.37 (0.05, 3.04) 2.01 (0.75, 5.33) 1.09 (0.52, 2.30)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic Reference   
 Non-Hispanic 0.66 (0.28, 1.52) 0.62 (0.30, 1.25) 0.95 (0.62, 1.46)
Education
 Less than 12 years Reference   
 High school 0.52 (0.16, 1.73) 1.91 (0.47, 7.78) 2.08 (1.07, 4.05)*
 Some college 1.49 (0.51, 4.35) 2.98 (0.75, 11.82) 3.85 (2.02, 7.32)***
 College graduate 2.04 (0.71, 5.88) 6.61 (1.70, 25.74)** 5.52 (2.91, 10.47)***
Marital status
 Never married Reference   
 Married 0.71 (0.36, 1.39) 0.86 (0.49, 1.52) 0.68 (0.48, 0.94)*
 Cohabitating 0.54 (0.22, 1.34) 0.65 (0.27, 1.53) 0.71 (0.40, 1.27)
 Divorced/separated 0.40 (0.18, 0.86)* 0.92 (0.49, 1.74) 0.93 (0.66, 1.32)
 Widowed 0.42 (0.13, 1.36) 1.38 (0.44, 4.40) 0.44 (0.24, 0.80)**
Family income
 $0–$34,999 Reference   
 $35,000–54,999 0.71 (0.42, 1.22) 1.15 (0.61, 2.18) 1.08 (0.80, 1.44)
 $75,000 or more 0.55 (0.24, 1.24) 1.19 (0.55, 2.56) 1.12 (0.78, 1.59)
Region
 Northeast Reference   
 Midwest 0.58 (0.27, 1.26) 0.86 (0.46, 1.60) 1.06 (0.72, 1.54)
 South 0.61 (0.32, 1.17) 0.48 (0.21, 1.07) 0.77 (0.54, 1.10)
 West 0.99 (0.53, 1.87) 1.96 (1.09, 3.51)* 0.96 (0.67, 1.38)
Health Behaviors
Physical activity
 Never Reference   
 Some/per week 1.37 (.83, 2.26) 1.54 (0.84, 2.80) 1.54 (1.13, 2.10)**
 Regular/per day 1.60 (.87, 2.95) 1.41 (0.65, 3.02) 1.59 (1.10, 2.29)*
Alcohol consumption
 Lifetime abstainer Reference   
 Former drinker 4.52 (1.26, 16.28)* 1.61 (0.44, 5.92) 1.28 (0.79, 2.08)
 Current infrequent 10.80 (3.73, 31.27)*** 3.34 (1.32, 8.45)* 0.86 (0.56, 1.32)
 Current mod/heavy 9.63 (3.02, 30.69)*** 4.09 (1.54, 10.85)** 0.90 (0.55, 1.46)
Cigarette smoking
 Never smoker Reference   
 Former smoker 0.61 (0.37, 1.02) 1.03 (.62, 1.69) 1.48 (1.10, 2.00)*
 Current smoker 0.83 (0.45, 1.50) 1.07 (0.59, 1.95) 1.34 (0.92, 1.94)
 Cholesterol check 1.04 (0.63, 1.72) 0.84 (0.48, 1.47) 0.85 (0.66, 1.11)
 Flu shot 0.66 (0.37, 1.18) 0.85 (0.52, 1.38) 1.01 (0.78, 1.29)
CAM Use, 12 Months
 Chiropractor 1.09 (0.57, 2.08) 0.40 (0.19, .82)* 1.36 (0.98, 1.90)
 Acupuncture 5.17 (2.35, 11.40)*** 1.62 (0.79, 3.30) 1.22 (0.65, 2.31)
 Vegetarian diet 3.28 (1.45, 7.44)** 3.41 (1.54, 7.58)** 2.63 (1.67, 4.14)***
Health Status
Health status
 Poor/fair Reference   
 Good/very/excellent 1.70 (0.76, 3.81) 0.70 (0.32, 1.51) 1.13 (0.74, 1.72)
Body weight status
 Underweight/healthy Reference   
 Overweight 0.97 (0.55, 1.72) 0.79 (0.48, 1.33) 1.10 (0.83, 1.44)
 Obese 1.43 (0.72, 2.81) 0.35 (0.17, 0.75)** 1.04 (0.80, 1.35)
Functional limitations 1.17 (0.70, 1.98) 1.17 (0.75, 1.83) 1.53 (1.11, 2.11)*
Back pain 1.26 (0.81, 1.98) 0.83 (0.50, 1.38) 1.31 (1.02, 1.68)*
Depression, 12 months 1.73 (0.97, 3.07) 2.08 (1.09, 3.96)* 1.65 (1.22, 2.21)**
ER visits, 12 months
 0 visits Reference   
 1 visit 1.50 (0.78, 2.88) 1.48 (0.78, 2.81) 0.80 (0.55, 1.16)
 2–3 visits 0.92 (0.42, 2.04) 0.29 (0.09, 1.00) 0.98 (0.61, 1.57)
 4 or More Visits 0.12 (0.01, 1.02) 2.42 (0.53, 11.10) 1.61 (0.71, 3.65)
Hospitalized, 12 Months 1.08 (0.54, 2.15) 0.31 (0.11, 0.86)* 0.74 (0.49, 1.11)
Healthcare Access
Usual place of care 1.35 (0.57, 3.22) 0.72 (0.35, 1.50) 0.91 (0.61, 1.35)
Health insurance
 Uninsured Reference   
 Public 1.55 (0.68, 3.57) 0.91 (0.41, 2.01) 0.66 (0.44, 0.97)*
 Private 0.79 (0.33, 1.91) 0.70 (0.34, 1.45) 0.78 (0.52, 1.16)
Office visits, 12 months
 0 visits Reference   
 1–3 visits 1.19 (0.48, 2.97) 2.79 (1.44, 5.38)** 1.66 (1.04, 2.65)*
 4–9 visits 2.05 (0.76, 5.50) 2.39 (.86, 6.63) 2.27 (1.32, 3.90)**
 10 or more visits 3.44 (1.28, 9.22)* 8.62 (3.77, 19.73)*** 2.59 (1.47, 4.55)**
  1. 1Race category “not releasable” were not displayed due to small sample size
  2. 2Family income used all 5 imputed income files from NHIS
  3. AIAN American Indian and Alaska Native
  4. ER Emergency Room
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 (compared to reference category)
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