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Table 2 Prevalence of meditation use by select user characteristics, exclusive use of one practice during previous 12 months1

From: Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States

  n 3 Mantra n Mindfulness n Spiritual2
Age-adjusted Percent (SE) Age-adjusted Percent (SE) Age-adjusted Percent (SE)
Exclusive use 122 0.33 (0.04) 151 0.44 (0.49) 498 1.48 (0.09)
Estimated use (1000s) 740   998   3359  
Demographics
Age4
 18–24 9 22 0.52 (0.14)a 40 1.02 (0.23)a
 25–44 45 0.37 (0.06)a 67 0.50 (0.08)a 161 1.44 (0.15)a
 45–64 54 0.37(0.06)a 53 0.51 (0.10)a 218 1.87 (0.16)b
 65 or above 14 0.21 (0.07)a‡ 9 0.13 (0.05)b‡ 79 1.14 (0.18)a
Gender
 Male 41 0.25 (0.05)a 54 0.36 (0.07)a 152 1.04 (0.12)a
 Female 81 0.40 (0.06)b 97 0.52 (0.08)a 346 1.89 (0.13)b
Race5
 White 106 0.36 (0.05)a 125 0.49 (0.06)a 394 1.56 (0.11)a
 Black 6 10 0.16 (0.06)b‡ 71 1.27 (0.19)a,b
 Asian 9 0.24 (0.09)a‡ 9 0.31 (0.10)a,b 22 0.86 (0.19)b
 AIAN/multiple race 1 6 0.56 (0.24)a,b‡ 10 1.43 (0.49)a,b‡
Ethnicity
 Hispanic 11 0.18 (0.06)a 14 0.20 (0.07)a 51 0.95 (0.19)a
 Non-Hispanic 111 0.35 (0.05)b 137 0.49 (0.06)b 447 1.59 (0.10)b
Education
 Less than 12 years 7 4 19 0.40 (0.12)a
 High school graduate 14 0.10 (0.03)a 19 0.19 (0.06)a 72 0.85 (0.13)b
 Some college 25 0.35 (0.09)b 27 0.32 (0.08)a 109 1.68 (0.20)c
 College graduate 76 0.48 (0.07)b 101 0.73 (0.10)b 297 2.23 (0.17)d
Marital status
 Never married 34 0.61 (0.15)a 50 0.41 (0.87)a 132 1.87 (0.24)a
 Married 57 0.29 (0.50)b 54 0.35 (0.06)a 201 1.30 (0.13)b
 Cohabitating 7 0.20 (0.07)b‡ 13 0.49 (0.17)a 22 1.09 (0.27)b
 Divorced or separated 18 0.22 (0.06)b 29 0.45 (0.09)a 113 1.96 (0.28)a
 Widowed 6 5 29 1.27 (0.55)a,b
Family income6
 $0–34,999 42 0.33 (0.06)a 50 0.34 (0.08)a 190 1.37 (0.12)a
 $35,000–54,999 40 0.31 (0.06)a 47 0.38 (0.07)a 154 1.52 (0.16)a
 $75,000 or more 40 0.37 (0.08)a 54 0.55 (0.11)a 154 1.61 (0.18)a
Region
 Northeast 28 0.43 (0.10)a,b 25 0.41 (0.10)a 94 1.53 (0.19)a,b
 Midwest 20 0.30 (0.09)a,b 28 0.40 (0.09)a 113 1.77 (0.24)a
 South 26 0.22 (0.05)a 25 0.17 (0.06)b‡ 139 1.19 (0.14)b
 West 48 0.46 (0.10)b 73 0.93 (0.16)c 152 1.63 (0.17)a
Health Behaviors
Physical activity
 Never 37 0.21 (0.04)a 33 0.24 (0.07)a 135 0.99 (0.11)a
 Some/per week 60 0.41 (0.07)b 89 0.60 (0.08)b 250 1.84 (0.16)b
 Regular/per day 23 0.42 (0.10)b 25 0.53 (0.14)a,b 105 1.96 (0.24)b
Alcohol consumption
 Lifetime abstainer 6 0.04 (0.02)a‡ 8 0.10 (0.04)a‡ 75 1.09 (0.18)a
 Former drinker 12 0.16 (0.06)b‡ 11 86 2.01 (0.28)b
 Current infrequent 74 0.48 (0.07)c 75 0.52 (0.07)b 232 1.54 (0.14)a,b
 Current mod/heavy 30 0.37 (0.85)c 56 0.74 (0.13)b 102 1.59 (0.22)a,b
Cigarette smoking
 Never smoker 71 0.34 (0.05)a 80 0.42 (0.06)a 260 1.33 (0.11)a
 Former smoker 26 0.29 (0.06)a 36 0.43 (0.10)a 138 2.11 (0.28)b
 Current smoker 25 0.33 (0.08)a 34 0.40 (0.10)a 100 1.34 (0.18)a
Cholesterol check
 Yes 42 0.39 (0.06)a 59 0.46 (0.07)a 155 1.49 (0.12)a
 No 80 0.28 (0.06)a 92 0.42 (0.08)a 339 1.21 (0.13)a
Flu shot
 Yes 76 0.32 (0.06)a 101 0.46 (0.09)a 303 1.65 (0.16)a
 No 46 0.34 (0.05)a 50 0.43 (0.05)a 195 1.39 (0.10)a
CAM Use, 12 Months
Chiropractor
 Yes 97 0.72 (0.17)a 133 0.43 (0.12)a 406 3.09 (0.43)a
 No 25 0.29 (0.04)b 18 0.44 (0.05)a 91 1.32 (0.09)b
Acupuncture
 Yes 107 3.11 (1.12)a 142 2.29 (0.72)a 476 3.41 (0.93)a
 No 15 0.29 (0.04)b 9 0.42 (0.72)b 22 1.45 (0.09)b
Yoga
 Yes 64 1.94 (0.24)a 68 2.79 (0.39)a 350 4.82 (1.16)a
 No 58 0.18 (0.03)b 82 0.20 (0.03)b 148 1.40 (0.09)b
Vegetarian diet
 Yes 109 1.43 (0.51)a 132 2.72 (0.78)a 458 6.11 (1.13)a
 No 12 0.30 (0.04)b 18 0.39 (0.05)b 40 1.40 (0.09)b
Health Status
Health status
 Poor/fair 16 0.32 (0.12)a‡ 22 0.46 (0.14)a 77 1.52 (0.24)a
 Good/very/excellent 106 0.33 (0.04)a 129 0.44 (0.05)a 420 1.48 (0.10)a
Body weight status
 Underweight/healthy 47 0.34 (0.07)a 71 0.67 (0.11)a 177 1.50 (0.14)a
 Overweight 34 0.25 (0.05)a 47 0.43 (0.08)a,b 158 1.48 (0.15)a
 Obese 39 0.37 (0.09)a 29 0.23 (0.07)b 158 1.46 (0.14)a
Functional limits
 Not limited 56 0.27 (0.04)a 63 0.40 (0.06)a 239 1.19 (0.09)b
 Limited 66 0.46 (0.08)a 88 0.58 (0.12)a 259 2.23 (0.22)a
Back pain
 Yes 70 0.47 (0.08)a 94 0.50 (0.09)a 282 2.18 (0.18)a
 No 52 0.26 (0.04)b 57 0.42 (0.06)a 216 1.23 (0.10)b
Depression, 12 months
 Yes 92 0.69 (0.15)a 117 0.87 (0.20)a 379 3.10 (0.35)a
 No 30 0.28 (0.04)b 34 0.39 (0.05)b 118 1.30 (0.09)b
ER visits, 12 months
 0 visit 89 0.29 (0.04)a 119 0.43 (0.05)a 377 1.44 (0.10)a
 1 visit 21 0.57 (0.14)a 23 0.59 (0.18)a 68 1.54 (0.24)a
 2–3 visits 10 0.40 (0.13)a 7 0.19 (0.08)b‡ 41 1.84 (0.36)a
 4 or More Visits 2 2 12 2.69 (0.97)a
Hospitalized, 12 Months
 Yes 106 0.46 (0.13)a 141 0.26 (0.11)a‡ 448 1.43 (0.26)a
 No 16 0.31 (0.04)a 10 0.46 (0.05)a 49 1.49 (0.10)a
Healthcare Access
Usual place of care
 Yes 16 0.35 (0.04)a 28 0.45 (0.54)a 64 1.55 (0.10)a
 No 106 0.21 (0.08)a 123 0.35 (0.09)a 434 1.14 (0.20)a
Health insurance
 Uninsured 17 0.17 (0.05)a 21 0.29 (0.08)a 73 1.41 (0.29)a
 Public 50 0.53 (0.11)b 49 0.49 (0.10)a 187 1.41 (0.16)a
 Private 55 0.29 (0.05)a,b 81 0.47 (0.07)a 236 1.52 (0.15)a
Office visits, 12 months
 0 visit 15 0.12 (0.04)a‡ 20 0.17 (0.04)a 49 0.73 (0.14)a
 1–3 visits 39 0.23 (0.05)a,b 59 0.45 (0.07)b 170 1.28 (0.13)b
 4–9 visits 31 0.44 (0.13)b,c 33 0.39 (0.11)a,b 155 2.02 (0.21)c
 10 or more visits 37 0.81 (0.16)c 39 1.01 (0.22)c 124 2.56 (0.29)c
  1. 1Age adjusted by using the projected 2000 US population as the standard population with the following age groups: 18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65
  2. 2Spiritual meditation prevalence is significantly higher than mantra and mindfulness meditation across most variables, except for age 18–24, AIAN/multiple race, and acupuncture use
  3. 3n reflects the count at each category from the sample data
  4. 4Age categories were not standardized to the 2000 population
  5. 5Race category “not releasable” were not displayed due to small sample size
  6. 6Estimates were generated using the first imputed income file
  7. †Estimates with a relative S.E. >50% are not shown
  8. ‡Estimates with a relative S.E. >30% but ≤50% unstable because of the small sample size
  9. a,b,c,d Within-group comparisons were performed across all nominal variables within each meditation type, α = 0.05 was used for all comparisons. Different superscript letters represent a statistically significant difference between the within-group categories compared, and same superscript letters indicate no statistical difference.
  10. AIAN American Indian and Alaska Native
  11. ER Emergency Room
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