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Table 1 Comparison of meditators and non-meditators by select user characteristics, use during the previous 12 months (age adjusted and standardized)a

From: Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States

  Meditatorsb (4.10%) Non-Meditators (95.90%) p-value
Age-adjusted Percent (SE) Age-adjusted Percent (SE)
Demographics
Agec
 18–24 10.15 (1.26) 13.03 (0.33) 0.040
 25–44 37.08 (1.81) 34.40 (0.39) 0.139
 45–64 42.23 (1.84) 34.54 (0.37) <0.001
 65 or above 10.55 (1.18) 18.04 (0.29) <0.001
Gender
 Male 38.55 (1.88) 48.65 (0.37) <0.001
 Female 61.45 (1.88) 51.35 (0.37)  
Raced
 White 86.30 (1.11) 80.96 (0.33) <0.001
 Black 8.05 (0.87) 12.37 (0.28) <0.001
 Asian 3.87 (0.60) 5.47 (0.18) 0.040
 AIAN/multiple race 1.78 (0.45) 1.21 (0.10) 0.156
Ethnicity
 Hispanic 8.19 (0.90) 15.40 (0.36) <0.001
 Non-Hispanic 91.81 (0.90) 84.60 (0.36)  
Education
 Less than 12 years 4.53 (0.84) 14.45 (0.29) <0.001
 High school graduate 10.68 (1.06) 26.79 (0.37) <0.001
 Some college 23.60 (1.43) 20.48 (0.33) 0.192
 College graduate 61.19 (1.55) 38.27 (0.38) <0.001
Marital status
 Never married 27.18 (1.24) 22.33 (0.25) 0.012
 Married 46.56 (1.60) 53.27 (0.34) 0.004
 Cohabitating 8.45 (0.94) 7.42 (0.19) 0.161
 Divorced or separated 14.24 (1.07) 11.11 (0.02) <0.001
 Widowed 3.57 (0.60) 5.86 (0.14) <0.001
Family incomee
 $0–34,999 30.22 (1.54) 33.33 (0.43) 0.007
 $35,000–54,999 30.75 (1.77) 32.11 (0.37) 0.498
 $75,000 or more 39.02 (1.91) 34.56 (0.46) 0.004
Region
 Northeast 17.70 (1.52) 18.23 (0.37) 0.386
 Midwest 23.58 (1.70) 22.66 (0.41) 0.365
 South 26.15 (2.03) 36.83 (0.48) <0.001
 West 32.56 (1.86) 22.28 (0.44) <0.001
Health Behaviors
Physical activity
 Never 23.36 (1.58) 44.00 (0.46) <0.001
 Some/per week 52.66 (1.99) 40.97 (0.44) <0.001
 Regular/per day 23.98 (1.64) 15.03 (0.33) <0.001
Alcohol consumption
 Lifetime abstainer 9.91 (1.22) 21.46 (0.35) <0.001
 Former drinker 13.52 (1.18) 14.44 (0.28) 0.335
 Current infrequent 51.11 (1.79) 43.95 (0.37) <0.001
 Current moderate/heavy 25.47 (1.59) 20.16 (0.34) <0.001
Cigarette smoking
 Never smoker 53.89 (1.13) 60.09 (0.37) 0.001
 Former smoker 27.79 (1.43) 21.81 (0.29) <0.001
 Current smoker 18.33 (1.13) 18.10 (0.30) 0.331
Cholesterol check, 12 months 66.11 (1.52) 61.93 (0.33) 0.040
Flu shot, 12 months 38.56 (1.63) 36.85 (0.34) 0.717
CAM Use, 12 Months
 Chiropractor 17.39 (1.29) 8.07 (0.21) <0.001
 Acupuncture 7.10 (0.77) 1.26 (0.07) <0.001
 Yoga 45.88 (1.82) 7.73 (0.21) <0.001
 Vegetarian diet 11.42 (1.10) 1.54 (0.09) <0.001
Health Status
 Health status
 Poor/fair 11.46 (1.11) 12.80 (0.24) 0.264
 Good/very good/excellent 88.54 (1.11) 87.20 (0.24)  
Body weight status
 Underweight/healthy 41.18 (1.81) 34.96 (0.35) <0.001
 Overweight 32.50 (1.67) 33.65 (0.36) 0.434
 Obese 26.33 (1.57) 31.39 (0.36) 0.003
Functional limitations 45.35 (1.59) 33.76 (0.35) <0.001
Back pain 38.53 (1.74) 27.44 (0.33) <0.001
Depression, 12 months 21.80 (1.42) 9.46 (0.21) <0.001
Emergency room visits, 12 months
 0 visit 77.24 (1.36) 80.72 (0.32) 0.006
 1 visit 13.67 (1.12) 12.14 (0.24) 0.065
 2–3 visits 7.35 (0.83) 6.24 (0.19) 0.409
 4 or More Visits 1.75 (0.48) 0.90 (0.07) 0.013
Hospitalized, 12 Months 9.99 (1.10) 9.10 (0.22) 0.606
Healthcare Access
 Usual place of care 85.53 (1.09) 83.64 (0.30) 0.155
Health insurance
 Uninsured 14.73 (1.10) 17.05 (0.31) 0.384
 Public 33.45 (1.18) 33.86 (0.37) 0.014
 Private 51.82 (1.62) 49.09 (0.41) 0.001
Office visits, 12 months
 0 visit 10.64 (0.98) 20.28 (0.32) <0.001
 1–3 visits 37.71 (1.64) 44.02 (0.38) 0.001
 4–9 visits 25.76 (1.55) 22.85 (0.31) 0.053
 10 or more visits 25.89 (1.56) 12.85 (0.24) <0.001
  1. aAge adjusted by using the projected 2000 US population as the standard population with the following age groups: 18–24, 25–44, 45–64, ≥65
  2. bMeditators include any use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation, past 12 months
  3. cAge categories were not standardized to the 2000 population
  4. dRace category “not releasable” were not displayed due to small sample size
  5. eEstimates were generated using the first imputed income file
  6. AIAN American Indian and Alaska Native