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Table 1 Participants’ socio-demographic characteristics at baseline

From: Rhythm-centred music making in community living elderly: a randomized pilot study

Variable Total (N = 31) Group A (N = 16) Group B (N = 15) p-value
Age (years) 74.65 ± 6.40 74.38 ± 6.84 74.93 ± 6.11 0.813
Gender     0.742
 Female 29 (94%) 15 (94%) 14 (93%)  
Ethnic group
 Chinese 31 (100%) 16 (100%) 15 (100%)  
Highest Education Level     0.550
 Primary 21 (68%) 10 (62%) 11 (73%)  
 Secondary 5 (16%) 4 (25%) 1 (7%)  
 Tertiary 5 (16%) 2 (13%) 3 (20%)  
Marital Status     0.674
 Single 3 (10%) 2 (13%) 1 (6%)  
 Married 16 (52%) 5 (31%) 7 (47%)  
 Others 12 (38%) 9 (56%) 7 (47%)  
Housing Type     0.484
 Private 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%)  
 HDB 30 (97%) 16 (100%) 14 (93%)  
Number of bedrooms     0.084
 2 rooms or less 9 (29%) 2 (13%) 7 (47%)  
 3 rooms 16 (52%) 11 (69%) 5 (33%)  
 4 rooms or more 6 (19%) 3 (18%) 3 (20%)  
Number of children     0.664
 0 children 4 (13%) 2 (13%) 2 (13%)  
 1 child 6 (19%) 2 (13%) 4 (27%)  
 2 children 8 (26%) 4 (25%) 4 (27%)  
 3 or more children 13 (42%) 8 (29%) 5 (33%)  
Number of people stay in the same house     0.774
 0 9 (29%) 4 (25%) 5 (33%)  
 1 8 (26%) 3 (19%) 5 (33%)  
 2 9 (29%) 5 (31%) 4 (27%)  
 3 or more 5 (16%) 4 (25%) 1 (7%)  
Attendance at social activities     0.654
 At least once a week 26 (84%) 14 (88%) 12 (80%)  
 Less than once a week 5 (16%) 2 (12%) 3 (20%)  
Physical activities     1.000
 At least once a week 28 (90%) 14 (88%) 14 (93%)  
 Less than once a week 3 (10%) 2 (12%) 1 (7%)  
ADL     0.654
 Independent 26 (84%) 14 (88%) 12 (80%)  
 Require assistance 5 (16%) 2 (12%) 3 (20%)  
Number of co-morbidities     1.000
 0–2 8 (26%) 5 (31%) 3 (20%)  
 3–4 17 (55%) 8 (50%) 9 (60%)  
 5 or more 6 (19%) 3 (19%) 3 (20%)  
  1. Data was analysed as per intention to treat protocol. Data is presented as per Mean ± Standard Deviation for age and for the other variables, the number of participants as well as the percentage were reflected
  2. Abbreviations: N Number, HDB Housing Development Board, ADL Activities of Daily Living