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Table 1 Lichens collected from Annapurna conservation area and their biological activities

From: Investigation of antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicity activities of lichens from high altitude regions of Nepal

S.N Symbol Name Dry wt. Activity DPPHa Anti microbial activity Brine shrimp Candida albicans(mm)
     Methanol DCM DCM MeOH DCM DCM fraction
1 DAN-1 Parmotrema cetratum 10 44.4 ± 0.5 11.4 ± 0.1 Α (7) B (7) S S -
2 DAN-2 Usnea pectinata 10 - - - S S -
3 DAN-3 Ramalina conduplicans 10 - 22.9 ± 0.7 Β(12) S S -
4 DAN-4 Everniastrum cirrhatum 2 - - Β(11) I S -
5 DAN-5 Parmotrema sanoti-angelii 10 - - A(10) B(10) S S -
6 DAN-6 Parmotrema reticulatum 10 23.3 ± 0.3 22.1 ± 0.1 A(10) B(9) S S -
7 DAN-7 Heterodermia diademata 10 - - Β (7) I S -
8 DAN-8 Cladonia verticillata 9.1 - 44.1 ± 0.3 Β (8) W S -
9 DAN-9 Parmotrema sp. 10 - - Β (7) I S -
10 DAN-10 Parmotrema tinctorum 10 - - Β (7) I S -
11 DAN-11 Peltigera polydactyla 3.6 11.3 ± 0.2 19.6 ± 0.1 - I S --
12 JOM-1 Lobaria retigera 10 - - - S S -
13 JOM -2 Parmotrema thomsonii 10 - - Α(8) B (11) S S -
14 JOM -3 Ramalina sp. 10 - - - S S -
15 JOM -4 Everniastrum cirrhatum 10 - - Β(14) S S -
16 JOM -5 Usnea sp. 10 - - Β(10) S S -
17 JOM -6 Peltigera polydactyla 9.2 11.2 ± 0.1 - - S S -
18 JOM -7 Heterodermia diademata 10 - - - I S 12
19 JOM -8 Parmotrema tinctorum 10 - - Α(11) B(7) S S -
20 JOM -9 Leptogium delavayi 10 - - - W I -
21 JOM -10 Parmotrema reticulatum 5.9 - - - S I -
22 JOM -11 Parmelina quercina 5.6 - - Β(10) I S -
23 JOM -12 Cladonia squamosa 10 - - Α(12)B(13) I S -
24 JOM -13 Parmotrema sp. 10 - - Α(11)B(7) S S 14
25 JOM -14 Heterodermia indica 2.8 - 49.9 ± 2.4 Α(9)B(8) I S 11
26 JOM -15 Heterodermia leucomela 3.8 - 47.7 ± 0.5 Α(8)B(9) I S -
27 JOM -16 Leptogium delavayi 0.9 - 47.1 ± 1.8 - I W -
28 CHA-1 Ramalina roesleri 10 - 20.2 ± 0.2 - I S -
29 CHA-2 Parmotrema sp. 10 - - - S I -
30 CHA-3 Parmotrema sp. 10 - - - S S -
31 CHA-4 Leptogium sp. 0.8 - - - I S -
32 CHA-5 Cladonia verticillata 10 - - - I S -
33 CHA-6 Usnea sp. 9 - - - S S -
34 CHA-7 Lepraria sp. 6.8 - - - S I -
35 CHA-8 Peltigera polydactyla 10 5.7 ± 0.02 5.56 ± 0.2 - I S -
36 CHA-9 Lepraria sp. 10 - - - I W -
37 GHAN-1 Coccocarpia erythroxyli 3.4 - - - I I -
38 GHAN-2 Parmotrema melanothrix 10 - - Β(7) S S -
39 GHAN-3 Heterodermia diademata 10 - - Β(7) W S -
40 GHAN-4 Parmotrema praesorediosum 10 - - Β(9) I S -
41 GHAN-5 Pertusaria leucosora 10 22.4 ± 0.9 44.6 ± 1.0 Β(13) S S -
42 GHAN-6 Cladonia sp. 10 - - Β(9) I S -
43 GHAN-7 Heterodermia diademata 10 - - - S S -
44 GHAN-8 Heterodermia punctifera 10 43.9 ± 2.1 47.3 ± 0.6 - S S -
45 GHAN-9 Parmotrema sp. 3 22.8 ± 0.9 - Β(12) W S -
46 GHAN-10 Leptogium delavayi 8.5 - - - W I -
47 GHAN-11 Lecidea sp. 10 - - Β(12) S S -
48 GHAN-12 Parmelia sp. 10 - - Β(9) S S -
49 GHAN-13 Parmotrema sp. 10 19.9 ± 3.0 - Β(11) I S -
50 GHAN-14 Collema sp. 1.7 - - - I I -
51 GHAN-15 Heterodermia microphylla 10 - 23.7 ± 0.1 - I S --
52 GHAN-16 Parmelia meiophora 6.9 - - Β(15) S S -
53 GHAN-17 Usnea baileyi 1.8 - - - S S -
54 GHAN-18 Heterodermia leucomelos 10 - - Α(7)B(7) I S -
55 GHAN-19 Parmotrema sp. 10 - - Β(11) S S -
56 GHAN-20 Pannaria complanata 10 - - Α(11)B(10) S S -
57 GHAN-21 Hypotrachyna flexilis 10 - - Β(9) I S -
58 SAR-1 Heterodermia indica 7.8 21.2 ± 0.3 24.0 ± 0.1 Β(8) S S -
59 SAR-2 Parmotrema reticulatum 10 - - Β(9) S S -
60 SAR-3 Heterodermia punctifera 7.83 - - - I S -
61 SAR-4 Usnea coralline 9.6 - - - S S -
62 SAR-5 Ramalina conduplicate 5.3 - 49.0 ± 2.3 Β(12) S S -
63 SAR-6 Lobaria disecta 10 - 50.7 ± 2.2 Β(7) W S -
64 SAR-7 Parmotrema reticulatum 10 - - Β(7) W S -
65 SAR-8 Heterodermia podocarpa 10 - - Β(12) W S -
66 SAR-9 Parmelaria thomsonii 10 87.3 ± 7.1 - Β(10) W S -
67 SAR-10 Everniastrum nepalenses 10 - - Β(8) S S -
68 SAR-11 Cladonia coccifera 10 23.5 ± 0.8 - - I S -
69 SAR-12 Parmotrema reticulatum 5.7 - 53.1 ± 6.9 - S S -
70 SAR-13 Parmotrema sp. 10 47.8 ± 1.3 - Α(9) S S -
71 SAR-14 Parmelia omphalodes 10 - - Α(10)B(11) I S -
72 SAR-15 Parmotrema reticulatum 3.5 49.8 ± 0.1 - Β(9) M S -
73 SAR-16 Parmotrema sp. 1.5 - - Β(8) S S -
74 SAR-17 Heterodermia speciosa 6 - - Α(7) M S -
75 SAR-18 Parmotrema sp. 8.6 49.9 ± 0.3 - - S S -
76 SAR-19 Parmotrema sp. 8.4 - - Α(9) S S -
77 SAR-20 Heterodermia microphylla 10 - - Α(8) W S -
78 SAR-21 Heterodermia microphylla 7.3 - - - I I -
79 SAR-22 Parmelia omphalodes 10 - - - S S -
80 SAR-23 Heterodermia microphylla 6.4 - 24.1 ± 0.4 - W S -
81 SAR-24 Heterodermia microphylla 1.2 - 45.8 ± 1.1 Α(9) I S -
82 SAR-25 Cladonia coccifera 0.6 - 47.9 ± 0.2 - I S -
83 SAR-26 Heterodermia speciosa 1.4 - 46.7 ± 1.3 Β(13) I S -
84 SAR-27 Pertusaria sp. 0.4 49.3 ± 2.6 - Β(12) I S -
   BHA   5.0 ± 0.4      
   Ampicillin(10 μg)     A(20),B(19)    
   Amphotericin B(10 μg)        20
   Berberine chloride (8 μg)      W   
   Berberine chloride (12 μg)      M   
   Berberine chloride (16 μg)      S   
  1. aIC50 (50% inhibition in DPPH color) data, A-antibacterial active against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone in mm), B-antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (inhibition zone in mm), S-strong activity (more than 80% death of brine shrimp), M-Moderate(50%–80% of death of brine shrimp), W-Weak (less than 50% of death of brine shrimp), I-inactive (no death at all)