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Table 5 Results of assessments on the variables from radial artery ultrasonography

From: Hemodynamic changes caused by acupuncture in healthy volunteers: a prospective, single-arm exploratory clinical study

Variables Assessment schedule
−5 min 0 +7 min +14 min +20 min +27 min
Baseline (Reference)a Needle insertiona During needle retentiona Needle removala Finala
Diameter of radial artery (mm) 2.01
(1.83, 2.19)
0.08
(−0.06, 0.21)
−0.00
(−0.14, 0.13)
0.06
(−0.08, 0.19)
0.00
(−0.13, 0.14)
−0.07
(−0.20, 0.07)
Maximum velocity of blood flow (cm/s) 5.29
(1.92, 8.65)
2.30***
(1.46, 3.15)
2.46***
(1.62, 3.31)
1.35**
(0.50, 2.19)
0.54
(−0.30, 1.39)
0.19
(−0.66, 1.03)
Average velocity of blood flow (cm/s) 9.31
(3.50, 15.11)
4.09***
(2.60, 5.59)
4.52***
(3.02, 6.01)
2.45**
(0.96, 3.95)
1.10
(−0.40, 2.59)
0.30
(−1.19, 1.80)
  1. ***,p < 0.001; **,p < 0.01;
  2. aValues represent differences between the baseline and each assessment during the needling procedure (95% CI). The last details are identical to the footnote of Table 3