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Table 4 Results for the bio-signal variables

From: Hemodynamic changes caused by acupuncture in healthy volunteers: a prospective, single-arm exploratory clinical study

Variables Assessment schedule
−5 min 0 +7 min +14 min +20 min +27 min
Baseline (Reference)a Needle insertiona During needle retentiona Needle removala Finala
Heart rate variability (HRV)
 NN (s) 0.89
(0.81, 0.96)
0.01
(−0.02, 0.03)
−0.01
(−0.03, 0.01)
−0.01
(−0.04, 0.01)
−0.02
(−0.04, 0.01)
−0.02*
(−0.05, −0.00)
 SDNN (ms) 60.89
(49.54, 72.24)
2.97
(−5.84, 11.78)
0.82
(−7.98, 9.63)
3.22
(−5.59, 12.02)
1.41
(−7.40, 10.22)
4.26
(−4.54, 13.07)
 RMSSD (ms) 41.51
(28.39, 54.63)
0.76
(−4.56, 6.09)
−2.21
(−7.53, 3.12)
−1.44
(−6.76, 3.88)
−3.15
(−8.47, 2.17)
−3.19
(−8.51, 2.13)
 TF (ms2) 1407.53
(816.28, 1998.78)
−190.15
(−617.85, 237.55)
−91.18
(−518.88, 336.52)
−69.81
(−497.51, 357.89)
−13.75
(−441.45, 413.96)
26.67
(−401.03, 454.37)
 LF (ms2) 432.39
(246.02, 618.75)
−54.68
(−203.00, 93.64)
−45.23
(−193.55, 103.09)
−45.86
(−194.18, 102.45)
−12.04
(−160.36, 136.27)
77.89
(−70.42, 226.21)
 HF (ms2) 256.67
(25.13, 488.20)
−17.95
(−110.86, 74.96)
−42.69
(−135.60, 50.22)
−62.72
(−155.63, 30.18)
−68.12
(−161.03, 24.79)
−97.81*
(−190.71, −4.90)
 nLF (%) 53.03
(43.27, 62.79)
−2.90
(−11.14, 5.34)
5.01
(−3.23, 13.25)
4.26
(−3.97, 12.50)
7.10
(−1.13, 15.34)
9.50*
(1.26, 17.74)
 nHF (%) 43.72
(34.52, 52.93)
2.39
(−5.43, 10.21)
−5.11
(−12.92, 2.71)
−4.31
(−12.13, 3.51)
−7.23
(−15.05, 0.58)
−9.40*
(−17.22, −1.58)
 LF/HF 2.03
(1.08, 2.98)
−0.37
(−1.34, 0.60)
0.29
(−0.67, 1.26)
0.13
(−0.84, 1.09)
0.14
(−0.83, 1.10)
0.98*
(0.02, 1.95)
Respiration
 Respiratory rate (bpm) 14.49
(10.94, 18.04)
0.11
(−1.05, 1.27)
0.43
(−0.74, 1.59)
−0.21
(−1.37, 0.96)
0.22
(−0.94, 1.38)
−0.15
(−1.31, 1.02)
PPG signals
 Amplitude (V) 0.38
(0.29, 0.47)
−0.01
(−0.05, 0.03)
0.02
(−0.02, 0.06)
0.02
(−0.02, 0.06)
0.01
(−0.03, 0.05)
0.03
(−0.01, 0.07)
 Systolic area (Vs) 94.50
(71.11, 117.90)
0.18
(−9.25, 9.61)
8.17
(−1.26, 17.60)
8.73
(−0.70, 18.16)
7.26
(−2.17, 116.69)
12.00**
(2.57, 21.43)
ICG signals
 Cardiac output (ml/min) 7107.78
(2142.10,12,073.47)
−182.77
(−1218.29, 852.76)
−395.31
(−1430.84, 640.21)
−509.858
(−1545.39, 525.67)
−261.268
(−1296.80, 774.26)
−239.630
(−1275.16, 795.90)
 Stroke volume (ml) 105.659
(16.99, 194.32)
−5.084
(−21.76, 11.60)
−8.855
(−25.54, 7.83)
−10.239
(−26.92, 6.44)
−11.781
(−28.46, 4.90)
−11.699
(−28.38, 4.98)
  1. NN normal to normal interval, SDNN standard deviation of the NN interval, RMSDD square root of the mean squared differences of NN intervals, TF total frequency, LF low-frequency domain, HF high-frequency domain, nLF normalized low-frequency domain, nHF normalized high-frequency domain
  2. **,p < 0.01; *,p < 0.05
  3. aValues represent differences between the baseline and each assessment during the needling procedure (95% CI). The other details are identical to the footnote of Table 3 except for following abbreviations