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Table 3 Important potential harms of using ginger for the management of NVP to be addressed during the clinical consultation

From: Which potential harms and benefits of using ginger in the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy should be addressed? a consensual study among pregnant women and gynecologists

   Physicians Women
Iterative round 1 Iterative round 2 Iterative round 1 Iterative round 2
Item # Potential harms M IQR M IQR M IQR M IQR
  Anticoagulant effects
1 Pregnant women at risk of bleeding should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 6.5 2.0 7.0 1.8 8.0 1.8 NA NA
2 Pregnant women with history of clotting/bleeding disorders should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 7.0 2.5 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 NA NA
3 Pregnant women with history of vaginal bleeding should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 7.0 1.8 NA NA 8.0 2.0 NA NA
4 Pregnant women close to labor should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 6.0 4.0 7.0 1.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
5 Pregnant women taking anticoagulants should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 7.0 2.8 7.5 2.0 7.0 1.8 NA NA
6 Pregnant women taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be warned of the anticoagulant effects of ginger 5.0 4.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 3.0 7.0 0.5
  Risk of abortion
7 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may be associated with spontaneous abortion in some pregnancies 5.0 4.0 7.0 2.0 8.0 2.0 NA NA
8 Pregnant women with a history of miscarriage should be warned of increasing risk of abortion associated with taking ginger 5.0 4.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
9 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may be associated with impairment of fetal development 3.0 4.8 7.0 2.0 7.0 3.0 7.0 0.5
  Risk of other co-morbidities
10 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias 5.0 5.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 2.8 7.0 0.5
11 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may stimulate irritable bowel syndrome 6.0 3.0 7.0 1.5 7.0 2.5 7.0 1.0
12 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may stimulate duodenal ulcer 6.0 3.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 3.0 7.0 1.0
13 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may stimulate the secretion of bile and should be avoided in people with a history of gallstones 5.0 3.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
14 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may induce heartburn 7.0 2.0 NA NA 7.0 2.0 NA NA
  Ginger lowers blood pressure
15 Pregnant women with a history of hypotension should be warned that ginger might reduce their blood pressure 6.0 4.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 2.0 7.0 0.5
16 Pregnant women with a history of dizziness should be warned that ginger might reduce their blood pressure and worsen their dizziness 5.0 4.0 7.0 1.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
17 Pregnant women taking anti-hypertensive medications should be warned that ginger might further reduce their blood pressure 5.5 3.8 7.0 0.8 7.0 2.0 NA NA
  Ginger lowers blood sugar
18 Pregnant women with a history of hypoglycemia should be warned that ginger might further reduce their blood sugar 6.5 2.8 7.0 2.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
19 Diabetic pregnant women whose diabetes is controlled by medications or insulin should be warned that ginger might reduce their blood sugar 5.0 4.0 7.0 1.0 7.0 2.0 NA NA
  Other adverse effects
20 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may induce some allergic reactions 6.0 3.0 7.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 7.0 1.0
21 Pregnant women should be warned that ginger may cause dehydration 5.0 3.8 7.0 2.0 6.0 2.8 7.0 2.0
  1. IQR interquartile range; M median; NA not applicable