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Table 2 Pre-intervention inflammatory markers between non-smokers and smokers groups

From: Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial

  Non-smokers (n = 32) Smokers (n = 64)
TNF-α (pg/mL) 2755.42 (172.00) 2821.25 (99.71)
IL-6 (ng/mL) 2.37 (0.30) 1.77 (0.16)
hsCRP (ng/mL) 1.58 (0.25) 2.45 (0.24)*
  1. Data are presented as mean (SEM). TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; IL interleukin; hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein. *p < 0.05 compared to non-smokers (Independent t-test)