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Table 3 Antibiotic resistance modulatory activity of leaves extract of R. heudelotii

From: Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modulatory activities of leaves and bark extracts of Recinodindron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

Antibioticsa Extracts concentrationb Bacteria, MIC (μg/mL) and modulating factors (in bracket) Modulating effect (%)b
E. coli E. aerogenes K. pneumoniae P. stuartuii P. aeruginosa
AG100 AG102 AG100Tet CM64 EA289 EA298 K24 NEA16 PA124
AMP 0 - - - - - - - - -  
MIC/2 - - - - - - - - - 0
MIC/4 - - - - - - - - - 0
CHL 0 8 32 64 256 128 64 64 64 64  
MIC/2 8 (1) 16 (2) 32 (2) 256 (1) 128 (1) 32 (2) 32 (2) 32 (2) 32 (2) 66.67
MIC/4 8 (1) 16 (2) 64 (1) 256 (1) 256 (0.5) 64 (1) 64 (1) 32 (2) 32 (2) 33.33
CIP 0 ≤0.5 ≤0.5 128 64 128 1 128 1 32  
MIC/2 ≤0.5 (na) ≤0.5 (na) 64(2) 32 (2) 128 (1) 1 (1) 64 (2) 1 (1) 32 (1) 33.33
MIC/4 ≤0.5 (na) ≤0.5 (na) 128(1) 64 (1) 128 (1) 1 (1) 64 (2) 1 (1) 32 (1) 11.11
KAN 0 64 4 8 2 16 32 4 16 128  
MIC/2 4 (16) 1 (4) 2 (4) 1 (2) 4 (4) 32 (1) 2 (2) 8 (2) 64 (2) 88.89
MIC/4 16 (4) 4 (1) 2 (4) 2 (1) 8 (2) 32 (1) 2 (2) 8 (2) 64 (2) 66.67
ERY 0 32 64 - - 64 16 128 16 128  
MIC/2 32 (1) 64 (1) - - 64 (1) 16 (1) 128 (1) 8 (2) 64 (2) 22.22
MIC/4 32 (1) 64 (1) - - 64 (1) 16 (1) 128 (1) 8 (2) 128 (1) 11.11
TET 0 2 8 32 16 32 4 16 4 16  
MIC/2 ≤0.5 (≥4) 4 (2) 4 (8) 4 (4) 4 (8) 2 (2) 8 (2) 2 (2) 16 (1) 88.89
MIC/4 ≤0.5 (≥4) 4 (2) 8 (4) 16 (1) 8 (4) 2 (2) 8 (2) 2 (2) 16 (1) 77.78
  1. a: TET tetracycline, KAN kanamycin, ERY erythromycin, CHL chloramphenicol, CIP ciprofloxacin, AMP ampicillin;; −: MIC not detected at up to 256 μg/mL; (): Modulating factor; na: not applicable,
  2. b: MIC Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. c: Percentage of antibiotic’s modulating effect by the plant extracts. Values in bold represent modulating factor ≥ 2 and modulating effect observed on more than 70% of the tested MDR bacteria