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Table 4 The effects of EECCL on plasma obesity biomarkers level, liver and kidney functions in obese rats after 11 weeks of treatment

From: Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet

  Dietary group
ND ND + 175 mg/kg ND + 350 mg/kg HFD HFD + 175 mg/kg HFD + 350 mg/kg
TG 0.35 ± 0.02c 0.32 ± 0.01c 0.41 ± 0.08c 1.15 ± 0.20a 0.70 ± 0.12b 0.62 ± 0.09b
TC 1.27 ± 0.17a 1.09 ± 0.22ab 1.26 ± 0.14a 1.28 ± 0.05a 1.14 ± 0.06ab 1.04 ± 0.05b
HDL-c 0.87 ± 0.14ab 0.86 ± 0.11ab 0.89 ± 0.08a 0.71 ± 0.04b 0.72 ± 0.05b 0.73 ± 0.03ab
LDL-c 0.25 ± 0.03a 0.25 ± 0.05a 0.27 ± 0.07a 0.26 ± 0.04a 0.24 ± 0.04a 0.16 ± 0.02b
Insulin 0.21 ± 0.03c 0.19 ± 0.02c 0.18 ± 0.02c 0.35 ± 0.03a 0.27 ± 0.06b 0.23 ± 0.04bc
Leptin 0.83 ± 0.20bc 0.65 ± 0.23c 0.68 ± 0.15c 2.05 ± 0.38a 1.33 ± 0.26b 1.12 ± 0.20bc
Adiponectin 17.19 ± 0.95a 17.00 ± 2.18a 16.11 ± 3.54a 10.26 ± 1.92b 17.49 ± 2.36a 17.07 ± 5.86a
Ghrelin 64.68 ± 8.64ab 78.92 ± 26.32a 54.78 ± 34.99ab 35.25 ± 8.64b 89.44 ± 25.94a 50.80 ± 7.37ab
AST 93.38 ± 24.24a 93.50 ± 11.25a 84.85 ± 12.09a 156.98 ± 113.32a 123.63 ± 32.56a 158.90 ± 48.09a
ALT 34.25 ± 4.38bc 33.25 ± 6.80c 32.08 ± 1.14c 51.90 ± 2.46a 56.38 ± 7.24a 45.95 ± 7.51ab
ALP 80.75 ± 6.02bc 79.75 ± 7.59bc 66.00 ± 16.85c 129.50 ± 23.70a 116.30 ± 26.14ab 94.00 ± 11.17abc
GGT 1.00 ± 0.00b 1.00 ± 0.00b 1.25 ± 0.50b 3.25 ± 1.26a 1.50 ± 1.00b 0.75 ± 0.50b
Urea 5.60 ± 0.35a 5.58 ± 0.33a 5.88 ± 1.07a 5.65 ± 0.90a 5.08 ± 0.49a 5.08 ± 0.54a
Creatinine 48.25 ± 0.96a 47.00 ± 3.16a 47.75 ± 5.19a 52.75 ± 3.30a 51.75 ± 2.06a 47.25 ± 2.06a
  1. Values are expressed as means ± SD (n = 6). Different letters (a, b, c) indicate significant difference (p < 0.05) between different groups as shown by ANOVA using SPSS Version 20. N Normal diet, HFD High fat diet, ND + 175 mg/kg Normal diet + 175 mg/kg body weight C. caudatus extract, ND + 350 mg/kg Normal diet + 350 mg/kg body weight of EECCL, HFD + 175 mg/kg High fat diet + 175 mg/kg body weight of EECCL, HFD + 350 mg/kg High fat diet + 350 mg/kg body weight of EECCL, TG Total triglyceride, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-c High density lipoprotein–cholesterol, LDL-c Low density lipoprotein–cholesterol, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, GGT Gamma-glutamyl transferase. TG, TC, HDL-c and LDL-c were measured in mmol/L. Insulin was measured in μg/mL whereas leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were measured in ng/mL. AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were measured in U/L whereas Urea and Creatinine were measured in mmol/L
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