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Table 1 Cytokines in healthy individuals

From: Effects of mindfulness-based interventions on biomarkers in healthy and cancer populations: a systematic review

Reference Participants Study design Interventions Controls Follow up Outcomes Findings
Oken et al. (2010) [21] 31 Dementia caregivers RCT (pilot) MM (N = 10)
6 weeks + common first-week session
Education (N = 11)
6 weeks + common first-week session
Respite (N = 10)
7 weeks respite care
No IL-6, TNF-α, HS-CRP, salivary cortisol There were no pre- and post-intervention differences in the levels of cytokines between the different intervention conditions (p > 0.05).
Barrett et al. (2012) [33] 149 ≥ 50y RCT MBSR (N = 51)
8 weeks
Exercise (N = 47)
8 weeks
Observational Control (N = 51)
No IL-8, neutrophil count, viral nucleic acid nasal secretion Compared to the control group, IL-8 levels in the MBSR group were slightly higher in nasal wash collected during acute respiratory infection (p = 0.02).
Creswell et al. (2012) [35] 40 ≥ 55y RCT (small) MBSR (N = 20)
8 weeks
Wait-list Control
(N = 20)
No IL-6, CRP, pro-inflammatory gene expression No significant treatment condition × time interaction for log-transformed IL-6 was observed (p = 0.57).
Gallegos et al. (2013) [36] 200 Community-dwelling
≥ 65y
RCT MBSR (N = 100)
8 weeks
Wait-list Control
(N = 100)
24 weeks IL-6, IGF-1, IgM and IgG antibody response There were no differences in the levels of IL-6 at post-MBSR intervention follow-ups.
No associations were found between MBSR activities and IL-6 levels.
Rosenkranz et al. (2013) [37] 49 Community volunteers RCT MBSR (N = 33)
8 weeks
Health Enhancement Program (N = 16)
8 weeks
4 months blister fluid TNF-α and IL-8, salivary cortisol There were no pre- and post-intervention differences in the levels of TNF-α and IL-8 between the MBSR group and the active control intervention.
Increased practice in the MBSR group was associated with a decrease in TNF-α levels, whereas the active control group tended to show the opposite relationship.
Hayney et al. (2014) [34] 149 ≥ 50y RCT MBSR (N = 51)
8 weeks
Exercise (N = 47)
8 weeks
Observational Control (N = 51)
No IFN-γ, IL-10 Serum influenza antibody, nasal IgA There were no significant differences in the production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in the influenza-vaccinated individuals between the different intervention conditions.
  1. Abbreviations: HS-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IFN-γ interferon gamma, IgA immunoglobulin A, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, IgG immunoglobulin G, IgM immunoglobulin M, IL interleukin, MBSR mindfulness-based stress reduction, MM Mindfulness Meditation intervention, Open open trial with a pre-post trial, RCT randomized controlled trial, TNF-α tumour necrosis factor alpha, y years
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