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Table 2 Patient characteristics based on types of CAM use

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use amongst patients with cardiovascular disease in Singapore

  Biologically-based systems (n = 91) Manipulative and body-based methods (n = 44) Mind-body interventions (n = 11) More than 1 type of CAM used (n = 146) P-valuea
Demographics
 Age 57.3 (9.7) 57.6 (11.8) 57.2 (11.0) 56.6 (11.0) 0.867
 Gender      0.262
  Male 68 (74.7 %) 36 (81.8 %) 7 (63.6 %) 98 (67.1 %)  
  Female 23 (25.3 %) 8 (18.2 %) 4 (36.4 %) 48 (32.9 %)  
 Ethnicity      0.026
  Chinese 72 (79.1 %) 35 (79.5 %) 6 (54.5 %) 118 (80.8 %)  
  Malay 3 (3.3 %) 2 (4.5 %) 0 (0.0 %) 4 (2.7 %)  
  Indian 8 (8.8 %) 2 (4.5 %) 4 (36.4 %) 20 (13.7 %)  
  Others 8 (8.8 %) 5 (11.4 %) 1 (9.1 %) 4 (2.7 %)  
 Education      0.136
   ≤ Secondary/ITE 38 (42.7 %) 15 (34.1 %) 0 (0.0 %) 39 (27.1 %)  
  Polytechnic diploma/A Level 24 (27.0 %) 15 (34.1 %) 4 (40.0 %) 51 (35.4 %)  
  Degree/Post-graduate 27 (30.3 %) 14 (31.8 %) 6 (60.0 %) 54 (37.5 %)  
 Occupation      0.751
  White collar 37 (54.4 %) 16 (47.1 %) 4 (80.0 %) 62 (55.4 %)  
  Blue collar 11 (16.2 %) 8 (23.5 %) 0 (0.0 %) 14 (12.5 %)  
  Unemployed/homemaker 20 (29.4 %) 10 (29.4 %) 1 (20.0 %) 36 (32.1 %)  
 Housing      0.880
   ≤ 3 room public apartment 8 (9.6 %) 4 (10.0 %) 0 (0.0 %) 17 (12.7 %)  
  4–5 room public apartment 40 (48.2 %) 22 (55.0 %) 4 (40.0 %) 63 (47.0 %)  
  Private property 35 (42.2 %) 14 (35.0 %) 6 (60.0 %) 54 (40.3 %)  
 Smoking      0.647
  No 57 (67.1 %) 27 (64.3 %) 8 (72.7 %) 99 (72.3 %)  
  Ever smoker 28 (32.9 %) 15 (35.7 %) 3 (27.3 %) 38 (27.7 %)  
 Alcohol      0.709
  No 35 (41.7 %) 15 (38.5 %) 6 (54.5 %) 68 (47.9 %)  
  Ever drinker 49 (58.3 %) 24 (61.5 %) 5 (45.5 %) 74 (52.1 %)  
Clinical Characteristics
 BMI 25.5 (5.6) 26.3 (5.1) 24.3 (2.3) 25.8 (5.3) 0.906
 Systolic Blood Pressure 130.4 (20.1) 134.0 (17.0) 122.1 (17.1) 132.3 (17.6) 0.484
 Diastolic Blood Pressure 69.8 (9.5) 73.7 (11.3) 69.1 (10.2) 71.2 (9.9) 0.606
 Diabetes mellitus 30 (33.0 %) 9 (20.5 %) 1 (9.1 %) 27 (18.5 %) 0.068
 Hypertension 39 (42.9 %) 27 (61.4 %) 2 (18.2 %) 77 (52.7 %) 0.057
 Hyperlipidemia 55 (60.4 %) 28 (63.6 %) 6 (54.5 %) 99 (67.8 %) 0.749
 HbA1C (%)b 6.7 (2.0) 6.1 (0.8) 5.6 (0.2) 6.2 (1.3) 0.279
 LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)c 2.7 (1.0) 2.6 (1.0) 2.4 (0.6) 2.7 (0.9) 0.950
  1. Energy therapies not included in analysis as only one patient used energy therapy only
  2. Mean and SD are reported for continuous data and frequency and percentages for categorical data
  3. aComparing one type of CAM use only (excluding energy therapies and others) and more than one type of CAM use
  4. bHbA1C – 473 patients with missing data
  5. cLDL – 303 patients with missing data
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