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Table 1 Demographics of the study population

From: Complementary and alternative medicine use amongst patients with cardiovascular disease in Singapore

  Overall (n = 768) CAM user (n = 333) CAM non-user (n = 435) P-valuea
Demographics
 Age 56.8 (12.6) 56.8 (10.9) 56.7 (13.7) 0.963
 Gender     0.442
  Male 562 (73.2 %) 239 (71.8 %) 323 (74.3 %)  
  Female 206 (26.8 %) 94 (28.2 %) 112 (25.7 %)  
 Ethnicity     0.010
  Chinese 569 (74.1 %) 264 (79.3 %) 305 (70.1 %)  
  Malay 43 (5.6 %) 10 (3.0 %) 33 (7.6 %)  
  Indian 107 (13.9 %) 39 (11.7 %) 68 (15.6 %)  
  Others 49 (6.4 %) 20 (6.0 %) 29 (6.7 %)  
 Education     0.485
   ≤ Secondary/ITE 243 (32.1 %) 112 (34.1 %) 131 (30.5 %)  
  Polytechnic diploma/A Level 235 (31.0 %) 102 (31.1 %) 133 (31.0 %)  
  Degree/Post-graduate 279 (36.9 %) 114 (34.8 %) 165 (38.5 %)  
 Occupation     0.750
  White collar 315 (51.6 %) 134 (53.4 %) 181 (50.4 %)  
  Blue collar 101 (16.6 %) 41 (16.3 %) 60 (16.7 %)  
  Unemployed/homemaker 194 (31.8 %) 76 (30.3 %) 118 (32.9 %)  
 Housing     0.672
   ≤ 3 room public apartment 74 (10.4 %) 35 (11.5 %) 39 (9.6 %)  
  4-5 room public apartment 350 (49.2 %) 146 (47.9 %) 204 (50.2 %)  
 Private property 287 (40.4 %) 124 (40.7 %) 163 (40.1 %)  
 Smoking     0.112
  No 522 (71.7 %) 217 (68.7 %) 305 (74.0 %)  
  Ever smoker 206 (28.3 %) 99 (31.3 %) 107 (26.0 %)  
 Alcohol     0.933
  No 337 (46.0 %) 144 (45.9 %) 193 (46.2 %)  
  Ever drinker 395 (54.0 %) 170 (54.1 %) 225 (53.8 %)  
Clinical Characteristics
 BMI 25.7 (5.2) 25.7 (5.3) 25.7 (5.2) 0.899
 Systolic Blood Pressure 131.4 (17.6) 132.2 (18.2) 130.8 (17.2) 0.284
 Diastolic Blood Pressure 70.9 (9.8) 71.4 (10.0) 70.4 (9.7) 0.157
 Diabetes mellitus 168 (21.9 %) 69 (20.7 %) 99 (22.8 %) 0.498
 Hypertension 374 (48.7 %) 165 (49.5 %) 209 (48.0 %) 0.680
 Hyperlipidemia 489 (61.4 %) 214 (64.3 %) 275 (63.2 %) 0.765
 HbA1C (%)b 6.3 (1.4) 6.3 (1.4) 6.4 (1.3) 0.588
 LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)c 2.7 (1.0) 2.7 (1.0) 2.7 (1.0) 0.488
  1. Abbreviations and definitions
  2. ITE Institute of Technical Education. HbA1C Glycated hemoglobin, White collar workers perform job duties in an office setting, Blue collar workers perform labour jobs or work with their hands, Public apartment refers to heavily subsidized housing built by the government. Families with gross monthly income in excess of $10,000 are not eligible to directly purchase these subsidized apartments from the Housing and Development Board
  3. Mean and SD are reported for continuous data and frequency and percentages for categorical data
  4. aComparing CAM users and CAM non-users
  5. bHbA1C – 473 patients with missing data
  6. cLDL – 303 patients with missing data
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