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Table 2 Efficacy of natural anti-inflammatory compounds relative to cellular toxicity in LPS activated BV-2 cells

From: Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis

BV-2 microglia cells + 1μg/mL LPS: anti-inflammatory potency
Substance Anti-inflammatory IC50 (μg/mL) Toxicity LC50 (μg/mL) iEI (LC50/IC50)
Cardamonin 1.6 265.0 >169.4
Dexamethasone 1.9 260.0 >136.8
Bay Leaf/Laurus nobilis 34.2 537.0 >15.7
Quercetin 27.8 250.0 >8.9
Apicidin 0.0 0.6 65.5
L-N-lysine dihydrochloride 4.2 247.2 58.8
Elecampane Root/Inula helenium 154.4 1486.0 35.7
Ashwagandha/Withania somnifera 166.4 2848.3 17.1
Hydrocortisone 13.0 219.2 16.9
Apigenin 25.2 337.0 13.4
Optilgold 9.4 113.6 12.1
Biochanin A 33.7 369.2 10.9
Tansy Herb/Tanacetum vulgare 143.0 1302.1 9.1
Feverfew/Tanacetum parthenium 28.2 230.2 8.2
Centipeda/Centipeda minima 258.4 2105.2 8.1
Osha Root/Ligusticum porteri 29.5 203.4 6.9
Eupatorin 39.3 265.2 6.7
Turmeric Root/Curcuma longa 74.4 498.9 6.7
Herb de province 167.2 1115.3 6.7
Granati peel/Punica granatum rind 75.7 439.1 5.8
Rabdosia rubescens Herb 34.5 192.7 5.6
Rosemary Lf/Rosmarinus officinali 43.0 214.8 5.0
Trifala 88.3 408.8 4.6
Green Tea Std Sigma T5550 38.0 169.7 4.5
Curcumin 10.2 43.2 4.2
Myrrh/Commiphora myrrha 31.8 132.8 4.2
Clove/Syzygium aromaticum 149.0 615.1 4.1
Indomethacin 17.9 67.2 3.7
Sage leaf/Salvia officinalis 80.3 298.4 3.7
Amla/Phyllanthus emblica 206.1 736.1 3.6
White Sage/Salvia apiana 79.2 282.0 3.6
Ganthoda 168.3 563.7 3.3
Succinum Resin 20.1 56.3 2.8
Genistein 5.6 14.7 2.6
Baicalein 7.8 20.1 2.6
Butein 1.2 2.9 2.3
Maddar root/Rubia tinctorum 59.2 135.0 2.3
Yerba Santa Lf/E. californicum 18.3 41.4 2.3
EGCG 11.3 24.8 2.2
Phloretin 17.2 37.8 2.2
Frankincense/Boswellia carterii 15.4 32.5 2.1
Fisetin 2.3 4.7 2.1
Piperine 36.2 75.1 2.1
Javentri Powder 16.5 34.1 2.1
Bergamottin 111.4 227.5 2.0
Cinnamon/Cinnamomum burmann 135.0 260.0 <1.92
  1. The data represent LC50 values for toxicity and IC50 values for NO2- reduction both determined by regression analysis on a minimum of 6 concentrations,(n = 4). The ratio of LC50/IC50 μg/mL is the iEI (in- vitro efficacy index), where the greater the value the greater the confidence in the anti-inflammatory effects. The symbol [>] denotes an iEI value acquired on a maximum upper limit concentration being tested
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