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Table 1 Efficacy of anti-inflammatory CAMS relative to cellular toxicity in LPS activated RAW 264.7 cells

From: Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis

RAW 264.7 cells + 1μ/mL LPS: anti-inflammatory potency
Substance Anti-inflammatory IC50 (μg/mL) Toxicity LC50 (μg/mL) iEI (LC50/IC50)
L-N-lysine dihydrochloride 4.4 250.0 >57.4
Cardamonin 6.1 250.0 >40.8
Dexamethasone 1.6 260.0 >22.4
Hydrocortisone 45.6 250.0 >5.4
Bay Leaf/Laurus nobilis 92.6 537.0 >5.8
Tansy Herb/Tanacetum vulgare 76.7 934.9 12.2
Apicidin 0.2 2.4 11.7
Apigenin 30.8 252.0 8.2
Yerba Santa Lf/E. californicum 194.0 1413.4 7.3
Butein 8.0 57.9 7.3
Ashwagandha/Withania somnifera 457.2 3306.0 7.2
Centipeda Herb/Centipeda minima 213.7 1260.5 5.9
Rosemary Lf/Rosmarinus officinalis 132.4 754.8 5.7
Feverfew/Tanacetum parthenium 48.4 264.2 5.5
Green Tea Std sigma T5550 45.5 228.7 5.0
Elecampane Root/Inula helenium 257.8 1276.0 4.9
Quercetin 14.3 63.8 4.5
Commiphora myrrha resin 127.1 5221.1 4.1
Amla/Phyllanthus emblica 156.7 641.0 4.1
Herb de province 203.4 793.2 3.9
Turmeric Root/Curcuma longa 87.3 274.3 3.1
Biochanin A 119.0 345.1 2.9
Trifala 195.3 559.5 2.9
Cinnamon/Cinnamomum burmannii 344.9 923.0 >2.6
EGCG 20.0 50.8 2.5
Bergamottin 67.1 161.7 2.4
Osha Root/Ligusticum porteri 43.4 104.1 2.4
Kalijiri Purple Fleablame 58.0 130.0 2.2
Curcumin 12.6 28.1 2.2
Rabdosia rubescens Herb 104.9 220.3 2.1
White Sage/Salvia apiana 62.0 129.5 2.1
Blood Root/Sanguinaria canadensis 23.4 47.4 2.0
  1. The data represent LC50 values for toxicity and IC50 values for NO2- reduction both determined by regression analysis on a minimum of 6 concentrations,(n = 4). The ratio of LC50/IC50 μg/mL is the iEI (in- vitro efficacy index), where the greater the value the greater the confidence in the anti-inflammatory effects. The symbol [>] denotes an iEI value acquired on a maximum upper limit concentration being tested