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Table 3 Incidence rate ratio for common disease between non-TCM and TCM user in different age groups

From: Utilization and prescription patterns of traditional Chinese medicine for patients with hepatitis C in Taiwan: a population-based study

Age groups (year-old) Non-TCM user TCM user IRR (95 % CI) Adjusted HRb
Disease (ICD-9-CM) N (%) Person-years IRa N (%) Person-years IRa (95 % CI)
Hepatitis B (70.2, 070.3, V02.61)
 All 570(19.82) 13085 43.56 1356(23.83) 39350 34.46 0.79(0.72−0.87)*** 0.55(0.46−0.66)***
 18−39 88(24.18) 1901 46.3 239(25.29) 7189 33.24 0.72(0.56−0.92)** 0.41(0.25−0.69)***
 40−64 327(22.54) 6923 47.23 842(24.80) 23900 35.23 0.75(0.66−0.85)*** 0.48(0.37−0.6)***
  ≥ 65 155(14.61) 4261 36.37 275(20.36) 8260 33.29 0.92(0.75−1.11) 0.82(0.58−1.17)
Liver cirrhosis (571.2, 571.5, 571.6, 572.2, 572.3, 572.4, 572.8, 573.0)
 All 989(34.39) 13085 75.58 1618(28.43) 39350 41.12 0.54(0.50−0.59)*** 0.42(0.37−0.48)***
 18−39 45(12.36) 1901 23.68 108(11.43) 7189 15.02 0.63(0.45−0.90)* 0.43(0.25−0.73)**
 40−64 489(33.70) 6923 70.63 951(28.01) 23900 39.79 0.56(0.51−0.63)*** 0.39(0.33−0.46)***
  ≥ 65 455(42.88) 4261 106.77 559(41.38) 8260 67.67 0.63(0.56−0.72)*** 0.54(0.44−0.66)***
hepatocellular carcinoma (155)
 All 535(18.60) 13085 40.89 898(15.78) 39350 22.82 0.56(0.50−0.62)*** 0.78(0.45−1.36)
 18−39 6(1.65) 1901 3.16 33(3.49) 7189 4.59 1.45(0.61−3.47) 1.25(0.12−12.75)
 40−64 242(16.68) 6923 34.96 514(15.14) 23900 21.51 0.62(0.53−0.72)*** 0.98(0.43−2.21)
  ≥ 65 287(27.05) 4261 67.35 351(25.98) 8260 42.49 0.63(0.54−0.74)*** 0.72(0.29−1.75)
Alcohol-related disease (291, 303.0, 303.9, 305.0, 571.0, 571.1, 571.3)
 All 294(10.22) 13085 22.47 477(8.38) 39350 12.12 0.54(0.47−0.62)*** 0.41(0.32−0.51)***
 18−39 65(17.86) 1901 34.2 124(13.12) 7189 17.25 0.50(0.37−0.68)*** 0.37(0.24−0.58)***
 40−64 185(12.75) 6923 26.72 290(8.54) 23900 12.13 0.45(0.38−0.55)*** 0.31(0.23−0.42)***
  ≥ 65 44(4.15) 4261 10.33 63(4.66) 8260 7.63 0.74(0.50−1.09) 0.61(0.33−1.16)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (491, 492)
 All 508(17.66) 13085 38.82 1402(24.64) 39350 35.63 0.92(0.83−1.12) 0.59(0.50−0.70)***
 18−39 27(7.42) 1901 14.21 120(12.70) 7189 16.69 1.18(0.77−1.78) 0.94(0.45−1.97)
 40−64 198(13.65) 6923 28.6 786(23.15) 23900 32.89 1.15(0.98−1.34) 0.67(0.52−0.86)**
  ≥ 65 283(26.67) 4261 66.41 496(36.71) 8260 60.05 0.90(0.78−1.05) 0.69(0.53−0.89)**
Diabetes Mellitus (250)
 All 1046(36.37) 13085 79.94 2143(37.66) 39350 54.46 0.68(0.63−0.73)*** 0.48(0.42−0.55)***
 18−39 55(15.11) 1901 28.94 151(15.98) 7189 21 0.73(0.53−0.99)* 0.40(0.22−0.71)**
 40−64 572(39.42) 6923 82.62 1358(40.00) 23900 56.82 0.69(0.62−0.76)*** 0.46(0.38−0.54)***
  ≥ 65 419(39.49) 4261 98.32 634(46.93) 8260 76.75 0.78(0.69−0.88)*** 0.64(0.51−0.8)***
Thyroid disease (240, 241, 242, 244)
 All 145(5.04) 13085 11.08 631(11.09) 39350 16.04 1.44(1.21−1.73)*** 0.90(0.67−1.21)
 18−39 21(5.77) 1901 11.05 105(11.11) 7189 14.6 1.32(0.83−2.11) 1.33(0.54−3.28)
 40−64 79(5.44) 6923 11.41 418(12.31) 23900 17.49 1.53(1.21−1.95)*** 0.9(0.6−1.36)
  ≥ 65 45(4.24) 4261 10.56 108(7.99) 8260 13.07 1.24(0.87−1.75) 0.92(0.53−1.58)
Rheumatoid arthritis (714)
 All 89(3.09) 13085 6.8 400(7.03) 39350 10.17 1.49(1.19−1.88)*** 1.18(0.82−1.69)
 18−39 11(3.02) 1901 5.79 42(4.44) 7189 5.84 1.01(0.52−1.96) 0.88(0.28−2.78)
 40−64 45(3.10) 6923 6.5 266(7.84) 23900 11.13 1.71(1.25−2.35)*** 1.38(0.81−2.36)
  ≥ 65 33(3.11) 4261 7.74 92(6.81) 8260 11.14 1.44(0.97−2.14) 1.24(0.69−2.22)
Osteoarthritis (715)
 All 953(33.14) 13085 72.83 2922(51.34) 39350 74.26 1.02(0.95−1.10) 0.75(0.66−0.86)***
 18−39 46(12.64) 1901 24.2 215(22.75) 7189 29.91 1.24(0.90−1.70) 1.2(0.64−2.27)
 40−64 427(29.43) 6923 61.68 1777(52.34) 23900 74.35 1.21(1.08−1.34)*** 0.85(0.71−1.03)
  ≥ 65 480(45.24) 4261 112.64 930(68.84) 8260 112.59 1.00(0.90−1.12) 0.82(0.67−1)
Depression (296.2, 296.3, 296.5, 296.6, 305.8, 311, v790, 290.13)
 All 174(6.05) 13085 13.3 650(11.42) 39350 16.52 1.24(1.05−1.47)* 0.78(0.61−1.01)
 18−39 31(8.52) 1901 16.31 128(13.54) 7189 17.8 1.09(0.74−1.62) 0.76(0.42−1.38)
 40−64 86(5.93) 6923 12.42 382(11.25) 23900 15.98 1.29(1.02−1.63)* 0.73(0.52−1.04)
  ≥ 65 57(5.37) 4261 13.38 140(10.36) 8260 16.95 1.27(0.93−1.72) 0.89(0.54−1.48)
Sicca syndrome (370.33, 710.2)
 All 78(2.71) 13085 5.96 423(7.43) 39350 10.75 1.80(1.42−2.30)*** 1.27(0.86−1.89)
 18−39 4(1.10) 1901 2.1 42(4.44) 7189 5.84 2.78(1.00−7.74) -
 40−64 40(2.76) 6923 5.78 266(7.84) 23900 11.13 1.93(1.38−2.69)*** 1.14(0.67−1.94)
  ≥ 65 34(3.20) 4261 7.98 115(8.51) 8260 13.92 1.75(1.19−2.56)** 1.71(0.93−3.15)
  1. aIR incidence rate, per 1000 person-years, IRR incidence rate ratio
  2. *:<0.05; **:<0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. bHazard Ratio adjusted for times of outpatient and inpatient visit, Charlson comorbidity index score and type of service used - only herbal medicine, only acupuncture and combination of them
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