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Table 1 Participant characteristics by diabetes and diabetes risk status; CKD-AFRIKA study population, 2014; N = 481

From: Traditional medicine practices among community members with diabetes mellitus in Northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey

Variable Participants  
  Overall (n = 481) Diabetes Absent (n = 436) Diabetes Present (n = 45) p-value*
   Low risk
(n = 352)
Increased risk
(n = 84)
  
Gender 0.21
 Male 123 (26 %) 89 (25 %) 19 (23 %) 15 (33 %)
 Female 358 (74 %) 263 (75 %) 65 (77 %) 30 (67 %)
Age <0.01
 18–39 years old 172 (36 %) 143 (41 %) 24 (29 %) 5 (11 %)
 40–59 years old 191 (40 %) 135 (38 %) 37 (44 %) 19 (42 %)
 60+ years old 118 (24 %) 74 (21 %) 23 (27 %) 21 (47 %)
Setting 0.10
 Rural 111 (23 %) 84 (24 %) 21 (25 %) 6 (13 %)
 Urban 370 (77 %) 268 (76 %) 63 (75 %) 39 (87 %)
Ethnicity 0.50
 Chagga 288 (60 %) 217 (62 %) 45 (54 %) 26 (58 %)
 Pare 66 (14 %) 43 (12 %) 19 (23 %) 4 (9 %)
 Sambaa 27 (6 %) 22 (6 %) 3 (4 %) 2 (4 %)
 Othera 100 (20 %) 70 (20 %) 17 (20 %) 13 (29 %)
Religion 0.18
 Roman Catholic 192 (40 %) 149 (42 %) 31 (37 %) 12 (27 %)
 Protestant 161 (33 %) 117 (33 %) 22 (26 %) 22 (49 %)
 Islam 123 (26 %) 84 (24 %) 28 (33 %) 11 (24 %)
 Hindu 2 (<1 %) 1 (<1 %) 1 (1 %) 0 (0 %)
Education 0.06
 None 31 (6 %) 21 (6 %) 4 (5 %) 6 (13 %)
 Primary 349 (73 %) 260 (74 %) 63 (75 %) 26 (58 %)
 Secondary 74 (15 %) 52 (15 %) 12 (14 %) 10 (22 %)
 Post-Secondary 27 (6 %) 19 (5 %) 5 (6 %) 3 (7 %)
Occupation <0.01
 Unemployed 74 (15 %) 52 (15 %) 15 (18 %) 7 (16 %)
 Farmer/Wage Earner 199 (41 %) 157 (45 %) 32 (38 %) 10 (22 %)
 Small Business/Vendors 158 (33 %) 121 (34 %) 25 (30 %) 12 (27 %)
 Professionalb 50 (10 %) 22 (6 %) 12 (14 %) 16 (36 %)
History of Smoking 117 (24 %) 85 (24 %) 19 (23 %) 13 (29 %) 0.45
History of alcohol intake 318 (66 %) 236 (67 %) 54 (64 %) 28 (62 %) 0.56
Self-Reported Medical History
 Hypertension 134 (28 %) 86 (25 %) 27 (32 %) 21 (47 %) <0.01
 Diabetes 61 (13 %) 23 (7 %) 9 (11 %) 29 (64 %) <0.01
 Heart Diseasec 18 (4 %) 10 (3 %) 3 (4 %) 5 (11 %) 0.01
 HIV 21 (4 %) 21 (6 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0.24
 Stroke 8 (2 %) 6 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 2 (4 %) 0.17
 COPD 8 (2 %) 6 (2 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (2 %) 0.55
 Kidney Disease 14 (3 %) 7 (2 %) 3 (4 %) 4 (9 %) 0.03
  1. COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. *P-value comparing differences by diabetes status (present or absent)
  3. aOther ethnicities includes Maasai, Luguru, Kilindi, Kurya, Mziguwa, Mnyisanzu, Rangi, Jita, Nyambo, and Kaguru
  4. bProfessional included any salaried position (e.g. nurse, teacher, government employee, etc.) and retired persons
  5. cHeart disease included coronary disease, heart failure, or structural diseases