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Fig. 2 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Grape compounds suppress colon cancer stem cells in vitro and in a rodent model of colon carcinogenesis

Fig. 2

RSV – GSE treatment induced apoptosis and reduced the number of crypts containing cells with nuclear β-catenin (an indicator of colon CSCs). Mice injected with AOM were fed with control, RSV-GSE or sulindac-containing diet for one week. Distal colon sections from the mice were analyzed for TUNEL positive crypts and β-catenin localization by immunofluorescence. a The fractions of crypts containing at least one TUNEL-positive cell (indicator of apoptotic cells) were determined. b Quantification of crypts with nuclear β-catenin in mice treated with control, RSV-GSE or sulindac supplemented diet for one week. Accumulation of nuclear β-catenin is hallmark of cancer stem cells and hence was used as an indirect measure for evaluating elimination of cancer stem cells. c Staining of β-catenin and DAPI (blue) in mice treated with AOM. Circles mark representative colon stem cells with nuclear β-catenin (CSCs). SU = Sulindac; RG = RSV-GSE. Values are in means ± S.E. (n = 5 in each group). At least 300 crypts from each animal were analyzed. Means that differ by a common letter (a, b, c) differ at p < 0.05. (Scale bars: 15 μm)

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