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Table 3 Effect of ITW on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) after 24 weeks; mean (SD), intention-to-treat population (N = 59)

From: Outcomes from a three-arm randomized controlled trial of frequent immersion in thermoneutral water on cardiovascular risk factors

CVRF Group Baseline Week 4 Week 24 Change Baseline/Week 24 P Value Partial eta2
BMI (kg/m2) Bath 1 29.9 (5.3) 29.5 (5.0) 29.3 (4.9) −0.6 (3.2)   
Bath 2 27.4 (5.3) 27.5 (5.5) 27.2 (5.8) −0.2 (3.5) 0.30 0.04
Control 31.3 (5.9) 31.5 (5.9) 31.1 (5.7) −0.2 (3.7)   
Waist circumference (cm) Bath 1 105.5 (13.6) 103.7 (13.8) 104.1 (12.8) −1.4 (8.4)   
Bath 2 98.4 (12.7) 98.9 (14.6) 98.2 (15.6) −0.2 (9.4) 0.69 0.01
Control 102.5 (10.7) 102.3 (9.9) 101.8 (10.7) −0.7 (6.8)   
Cholesterol total (mg/dl) (50–200) Bath 1 219.4 (38.2) 215.2 (32.3) 211.1 (34.6) −8.3 (23.3)   
Bath 2 230.2 (35.0) 233.1 (32.4) 236.6 (47.3) 6.4 (28.5) 0.09 0.09
Control 226.9 (35.6) 212.9 (33.3) 222.2 (34.4) −4.7 (22.2)   
LDL (mg/dl) (<160) Bath 1 134.5 (33.3) 135.7 (29.1) 129.9 (27.0) −4.6 (20.0)   
Bath 2 143.0 (30.6) 144.9 (25.7) 147.2 (32.7) 4.2 (20.1) 0.13 0.09
Control 136.8 (35.1) 128.9 (34.2) 141.7 (34.3) 4.9 (22.0)   
HDL (mg/dl) (>40) Bath 1 47.3 (13.1) 47.0 (15.3) 45.8 (11.0) −1.5 (7.9)   
Bath 2 51.4 (14.7) 52.8 (14.2) 51.1 (15.1) −0.3 (9.4) 0.84 0.01
Control 44.0 (15.2) 45.8 (13.6) 45.9 (15.5) 1.9 (9.7)   
LDL/HDL Quotient (<3) Bath 1 2.9 (0.9) 3.1 (1.0) 3.0 (0.9) 0.1 (0.6)   
Bath 2 3.1 (1.5) 2.9 (0.9) 3.0 (1.0) −0.1 (0.9) 0.39 0.04
Control 3.5 (1.5) 3.1 (1.4) 3.6 (1.9) 0.1 (1.1)   
Triglyceride (mg/dl) (<150) Bath 1 168.0 (107.0) 146.0 (77.0) 126.0 (42.0) −42.0 (77.6)   
Bath 2 126.0 (56.0) 134.0 (66.0) 121.0 (56.0) −5.0 (35.4) 0.77 0.01
Control 168.0 (95.0) 149.0 (68.0) 144.0 (57.0) −24.0 (60.1)   
CRP (mg/l) (0–5) Bath 1 2.5 (2.3) 1.6 (1.3) 1.6 (1.3) −0.9 (1.5)   
Bath 2 2.3 (2.3) 1.8 (1.9) 2.3 (2.7) 0.0 (1.6) 0.64 0.02
Control 3.3 (2.3) 2.5 (2.3) 2.4 (2.5) −0.9 (1.5)   
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) (70–110) Bath 1 110.0 (30.0) 101.0 (24.0) 104.0 (26.0) −6.0 (18.1)   
Bath 2 90.0 (18.0) 91.0 (12.0) 88.0 (8.0) −2.0 (12.6) 0.55 0.03
Control 95.0 (15.0) 90.0 (15.0) 93.0 (15.0) −2.0 (9.5)   
  1. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline values as covariates. P-value and partial eta2 refer to time × group interaction
  2. BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, ITW immersion in thermoneutral water, LDL low-density lipoprotein