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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the intention-to-treat population (N = 59)

From: Outcomes from a three-arm randomized controlled trial of frequent immersion in thermoneutral water on cardiovascular risk factors

  Overall N = 59 Bath1 N = 19 Bath2 N = 21 Control N = 19 P
Gender (female/male) 29/30 5/14 14/7 10/9 0.04*a
Age (years) 57.6 (9.6) 60.2 (6.7) 57.1 (10.0) 55.5 (11.4) 0.32
Patients taking antihypertensive medication (n) 33 (55.9 %) 11 (57.9 %) 7 (33.3 %) 15 (78.9 %) 0.02*a
No CVRF (n) 2 0 2 0 0.46a
1–2 CVRF (n) 32 9 13 10
≥3 CVRF (n) 22 9 5 8
CVD (n) 3 1 1 1
Smoking status (smoker/non-smoker) 9/50 (15 %) 1/18 (5 %) 4/17 (19 %) 4/15 (21 %) 0.33a
SBP (mm Hg) 145.2 (10.2) 147.2 (7.8) 143.8 (12.3) 144.8 (9.9) 0.55
DBP (mm Hg) 90.1 (8.5) 91.8 (8.4) 90.5 (9.9) 88.1 (7.0) 0.42
BMI (kg/m2) 29.5 (5.7) 29.9 (5.3) 27.4 (5.3) 31.3 (5.9) 0.08
Waist circumference (cm) 102.0 (13.0) 106.0 (14.0) 98.0 (13.0) 103.0 (11.0) 0.20
Cholesterol total (mg/dl) (50–200) 226.0 (36.0) 219.0 (38.0) 230.0 (35.0) 227.0 (36.0) 0.63
LDL (mg/dl) (<160) 138.0 (33.0) 135.0 (33.0) 143.0 (31.0) 137.0 (35.0) 0.72
HDL (mg/dl) (>40) 48.0 (15.0) 47.0 (13.0) 51.0 (15.0) 44.0 (15.0) 0.28
LDL/HDL Quotient (<3) 3.2 (1.3) 2.9 (0.9) 3.1 (1.5) 3.5 (1.5) 0.38
Triglyceride (mg/dl) (<150) 153.0 (88.0) 168.0 (107.0) 126.0 (56.0) 168.0 (95.0) 0.22
CRP (mg/l) (0–5) 2.7 (2.3) 2.5 (2.3) 2.3 (2.3) 3.3 (2.3) 0.36
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl) (70–110) 99.0 (23.0) 110.0 (30.0) 90.0 (18.0) 95.0 (15.0) 0.02*
  1. Data are shown as mean and standard deviation (SD)
  2. *P < 0.05
  3. BMI body mass index, CVRF cardiovascular risk factors, CVD cardiovascular disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, CRP C-reactive protein
  4. aChi2-test