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Table 7 Biochemical parameters of female and male rats in chronic toxicity test

From: Acute and chronic toxicities of Bacopa monnieri extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

Biochemical parameter Control B. monnieri extract
30 mg/kg 60 mg/kg 300 mg/kg 1,500 mg/kg Satellite group
Female rats       
 GLU (mg/dl) 177.30 ± 5.66 159.90 ± 7.50 147.50 ± 6.55* 134.10 ± 8.50* 132.20 ± 7.96* 170.3 ± 8.85
 BUN (mg/dl) 16.12 ± 1.99 16.54 ± 0.41 15.76 ± 1.23 16.47 ± 0.44 27.50 ± 11.31 21.32 ± 0.53
 CRE (mg/dl) 0.56 ± 0.02 0.57 ± 0.01 0.55 ± 0.01 0.58 ± 0.01 0.60 ± 0.02 0.61 ± 0.02*
 TP (g/dl) 6.29 ± 0.08 6.20 ± 0.08 6.15 ± 0.09 6.22 ± 0.12 6.16 ± 0.10 5.86 ± 0.03*
 ALB (g/dl) 3.20 ± 0.03 3.27 ± 0.03 3.27 ± 0.03 3.20 ± 0.05 3.12 ± 0.04 3.18 ± 0.05
 T-BIL (mg/dl) 0.10 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.01 81.18 ± 81.09 0.10 ± 0.00 0.25 ± 0.02
 D-BIL (mg/dl) 0.18 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.02 0.23 ± 0.03 0.28 ± 0.08 0.22 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.01
 AST (U/L) 195.60 ± 26.12 220.20 ± 22.37 162.70 ± 9.09 213.40 ± 21.86 178.20 ± 21.36 204.80 ± 21.98
 ALT (U/L) 57.60 ± 9.00 77.70 ± 10.96 49.70 ± 5.35 73.40 ± 9.83 61.10 ± 9.88 63.20 ± 7.79
 ALP (U/L) 43.20 ± 2.92 40.60 ± 3.03 41.90 ± 3.22 48.00 ± 7.90 48.10 ± 6.03 43.10 ± 3.94
Male rats                   
 GLU (mg/dl) 209.10 ± 8.67 209.40 ± 15.59 181.40 ± 18.86 219.60 ± 14.18 196.40 ± 9.49 174.20 ± 8.07
 BUN (mg/dl) 17.52 ± 0.46 18.25 ± 0.45 17.29 ± 0.63 16.59 ± 0.32 16.94 ± 0.50 19.62 ± 0.31*
 CRE (mg/dl) 0.57 ± 0.03 0.56 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.02 6.09 ± 5.55 0.53 ± 0.01 0.61 ± 0.02
 TP (g/dl) 6.11 ± 0.12 5.85 ± 0.15 6.19 ± 0.09 6.11 ± 0.10 6.37 ± 0.13 6.25 ± 0.18
 ALB (g/dl) 3.07 ± 0.05 3.03 ± 0.06 3.06 ± 0.03 3.07 ± 0.05 3.10 ± 0.04 3.21 ± 0.06
 T-BIL (mg/dl) 0.20 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02 0.14 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02
 D-BIL (mg/dl) 0.09 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.00 0.10 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.00 0.08 ± 0.01 0.18 ± 0.07
 AST (U/L) 193.00 ± 13.81 158.60 ± 9.13 152.30 ± 13.61* 142.60 ± 8.27* 146.80 ± 10.34* 201.80 ± 22.31
 ALT (U/L) 63.20 ± 6.35 61.90 ± 5.82 54.60 ± 5.27 51.30 ± 2.86 54.40 ± 3.99 83.40 ± 9.42*
 ALP (U/L) 55.80 ± 2.51 53.20 ± 2.28 52.90 ± 1.59 55.10 ± 2.61 61.10 ± 2.22 64.90 ± 3.40*
  1. A satellite group was given the B. monnieri extract at 1,500 mg/kg daily over 270 days followed by no treatment for 28 days
  2. GLU glucose, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CRE creatinine, TP total protein, ALB albumin, T-BIL total bilirubin, D-BIL direct bilirubin, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase
  3. Values are expressed as mean ± S.E.M., n = 10. *Significantly different from control, p < 0.05