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Table 6 BMI differences between consumers and non-consumers of the top 5 herbal ingredients used by “dieters for overweight/obesity”a

From: Usage of Plant Food Supplements (PFS) for weight control in six European countries: results from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012

   BMI  
   <25 kg/m2 ≥25 kg/m2  
Top 5 herbal ingredients consumed by “dieters for overweight/obesity” Consumption group n % n % Chi2
       p-value*
a) When using only the subsample 2b (n = 112)
Cynara scolymus (artichoke) Consumers 9 26.5 25 73.5 0.590
  Non-consumers 17 21.8 61 78.2  
Foeniculum vulgare ssp. (fennel) Consumers 5 29.4 12 70.6 0.511
  Non-consumers 21 22.1 74 77.9  
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) Consumers 3 21.4 11 78.6 0.866
  Non-consumers 23 23.5 75 76.5  
Ananas comosus (pineapple) Consumers 8 61.5 5 38.5 0.000
  Non-consumers 18 18.2 81 81.8  
Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) Consumers 1 9.1 10 90.9 0.243
  Non-consumers 25 24.8 76 75.2  
b) When using the entire sample of consumers (n = 2359)
Cynara scolymus (artichoke) Consumers 72 41.6 101 58.4 0.019
  Non-consumers 1113 50.9 1073 49.1  
Foeniculum vulgare ssp. (fennel) Consumers 71 53.8 61 46.2 0.401
  Non-consumers 1114 50 1113 50  
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) Consumers 39 48.8 41 51.3 0.787
  Non-consumers 1146 50.3 1133 49.7  
Ananas comosus (pineapple) Consumers 21 60 14 40 0.244
  Non-consumers 1164 50.1 1160 49.9  
Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) Consumers 32 47.8 35 52.2 0.681
  Non-consumers 1153 50.3 1139 49.7  
  1. aDifferences are analysed when using a) subsample 2 (consumers responding to be “dieting for overweight/obesity”) and b) the entire survey sample; bSubsample 2: consumers responding to be “dieting for overweight/obesity”; *p < 0.05 for significance