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Table 3 Top 20 herbal ingredients contained in PFS taken by consumers who “are/are not” “dieting for overweight/obesity”a

From: Usage of Plant Food Supplements (PFS) for weight control in six European countries: results from the PlantLIBRA PFS Consumer Survey 2011-2012

Responded “Dieting for ove/obe”b Did not respond “Dieting for ove/obe”c
Herbal ingredients consumed PFS (n) % (CI 95 %) Herbal ingredients consumed PFS (n) % (CI 95 %)
Cynara scolymus (artichoke) 34 7.0 (6.4-7.7) Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) 193 2.8 (2.4-3.2)
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 17 3.5 (2.3-3.2) Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) 191 2.7 (2.3-3.1)
Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) 14 2.9 (2.0-2.8) Panax ginseng (ginseng) 166 2.4 (2.0-2.8)
Ananas comosus (pineapple) 13 2.7 (1.7-2.5) Aloe vera (aloe) 143 2.1 (1.7-2.4)
Matricaria chamomilla (Hungarian camomile) 11 2.3 (1.6-2.4) Cynara scolymus (artichoke) 139 2.0 (1.7-2.3)
Camellia sinensis (green tea) 10 2.1 (1.4-2.1) Valeriana officinalis (valerian) 120 1.7 (1.4-2.0)
Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) 10 2.1 (1.3-2.0) Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) 115 1.7 (1.3-2.0)
Fucus vesiculosus (kelp) 9 1.9 (1.1-1.8) Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) 102 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Paullinia cupana (guarana) 9 1.9 (1.1-1.8) Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) 102 1.5 (1.2-1.8)
Vitis vinifera (grapevine) 9 1.9 (1.1-1.7) Glycine max (soy bean) 98 1.4 (1.1-1.7)
Raphanus sativus (radish) 8 1.7 (1.1-1.7) Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) 95 1.4 (1.1-1.7)
Sambucus nigra (elder) 8 1.7 (0.9-1.6) Zingiber officinale (ginger) 87 1.3 (1.0-1.5)
Carica papaya (papaya) 7 1.5 (0.9-1.5) Pimpinella anisum (aniseed) 82 1.2 (0.9-1.4)
Citrus limon (lemon) 7 1.5 (0.8-1.4) Echinacea angustifolia (Echinacea) 79 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
Pimpinella anisum (aniseed) 7 1.5 (0.8-1.4) Vitis vinifera (grapevine) 78 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
Silybum marianum (milk thistle) 7 1.5 (0.8-1.4) Camellia sinensis (green tea) 77 1.1 (0.9-1.4)
Smilax officinalis (sarsaparilla) 7 1.5 (0.8-1.4) Linum usitatissimum (flax) 75 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
Asparagus officinalis (asparagus) 6 1.2 (0.8-1.4) Passiflora incarnate (passionflower) 75 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
Equisetum spec. (horsetail & scouring rush) 6 1.2 (0.8-1.3) Harpagophytum p. (devil’s claw) 74 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
Cassia senna (senna) 5 1.0 (0.8-1.3) Allium sativum (garlic) 73 1.1 (0.8-1.3)
  1. aQuestion asked: Are you following any special diet(s) which would cause you to avoid certain foods? (mark all that apply) – sixteen possible options were available; bSubsample 2; at least one of the options chosen included “overweight/obesity”. cNeither of the options chosen included “overweight/obesity”