Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for insomnia after stroke

From: Acupuncture for insomnia after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year) Country Sample Size Participants Intervention Group Regimen Control group regimen Main outcomes Results
Average age (years) Sex (male/female) Severity of insomnia Time since stroke
Ye 2013 [22] 85 (a) 62.8 ± 7.2
(b) 67.3 ± 8.3
(a) 23/20
(b) 20/22
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) 15.9 ± 3.5 days
(b) 14.17 ± 2.9 days
(a) AT (n = 43)
(GV-20, EX-HN3, EX-HN1, HT-7, EX/ 5 times a week for 4 weeks, 30 min)
(b) Drugs (n = 42)
(Alprazolam 0.4 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) PSQI
(2) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine
(1) Significant differences in PSQI scores
(P < 0.05)
(2) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.01)
Li 2012 [23] 300 (a) 49.2
(b) 51.3
(a) 79/71
(b) 77/73
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT + Drugs (n = 150)
(BL-62, KI-6, HT-7/ once a day for 10 days, 30 min)
(b) Drugs (n = 150)
(Estazolam 0.5 mg once a day for 10 days)
(1) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine (1) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.05)
Huang 2012 [24] 84 (a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT (n = 42)
(GV-20, EX-HN1, Auricular Shenmen, EX-HN3, EX, KI-6, BL-62/ 6 times a week for 2 weeks, 30 min)
(b) Drugs (n = 42)
(Estazolam 2 mg 4–7 times a day for 2 weeks)
(1) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine (1) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.05)
Wu 2012 [25] 80 (a) 67.6 ± 10.4
(b) 66.2 ± 9.6
(a) 20/20
(b) 18/22
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AA (n = 40)
(Auricular Shenmen, heart, kidney, subcortex, internal ear/ 4–5 times a day for 10 days)
(b) Drugs (n = 40)
(Estazolam 2 mg once a day for 10 days)
(1) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine (1) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.01)
Huang 2011 [26] 60 (a) 66
(b) 67
(a) 11/19
(b) 13/17
(a) AIS > 6
(b) AIS > 6
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT + Drugs (n = 30)
(GV-20, EX-HN1, SP-6, BL-23, HT-7, EX/ once a day for 14 days, 30 min)
(b) Drugs (n = 30)
(Bailemianjiaonang 0.27 g × 4 capsules twice a day for 20 days)
(1) PSQI (1) Significant differences in PSQI scores
(P < 0.01)
Sun 2011 [27] 60 (a) 40 ± 15
(b) 40 ± 15
(a) 14/16
(b) 15/15
(a) PSQI 13.31 ± 2.4
(b) PSQI 12.09 ± 3.1
(a) 4.0 ± 2.6 years
(b) 3.9 ± 2.8 years
(a) AT + AA (n = 30) (AT: GV-20, HT-7, SP-6, GB-20, EX-HN5, EX-HN1, EX/ once a day for 20 days, 30 min); AA: HT-7, sympathetic/ twice a day for 20 days, 15 ~ 20 min) (b) Drugs (n = 30)
(Estazolam 2 mg once a day for 20 days)
(1) PSQI
(2) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine
(1) Significant differences in PSQI scores (P < 0.05)
(2) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.05)
Ye 2010 [28] 60 (a) 61.5 ± 3.7
(b) 62.4 ± 4.9
(a) 16/14
(b) 17/13
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT (n = 30)
(GV-24, GV-20, GV-16, GV-11, EX-HN1/ 6 times a week for 4 weeks, 30 min)
(b) Drugs (n = 30)
(Diazepam 5.0 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine (1) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.01)
Lee 2009 [20] 52 (a) 66.7 ± 11.0
(b) 66.0 ± 9.6
(a) 12/15
(b) 12/13
(a) ISI 18.4 ± 2.7,
AIS 15.8 ± 2.4
(b) ISI 18.1 ± 2.6,
AIS 14.9 ± 2.2
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) IA (n = 27)
(He7, EH6/ once a day for 3 days)
(b) Sham AT
(n = 25)
(1) ISI
(2) AIS
(1)Significant differences in ISI scores
(P < 0.01)
(2)Significant differences in AIS scores
(P < 0.01)
Lu 2008 [29] 50 (a) 61.48 ± 3.72 (b) 62.40 ± 4.88 (a) 14/11
(b) 15/10
(a) PSQI 16.64 ± 2.3
(b) PSQI 17.28 ± 2
(a) 0.3 ~ 1 years
(b) 0.3 ~ 1 years
(a) AT (n = 25) (GV-24, GV-20, GV-16, GV-11, BL-23, KI-3, HT-7, PC-6/ 6 days a week for 4 weeks, 30 min) (b) Drugs (n = 25)
(Diazepam 5.0 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) PSQI (1) Significant differences in PSQI scores
(P < 0.05)
Li 2007 [8] 64 (a) 69.8 ± 7.1
(b) 67.3 ± 8.3
(a) 18/14
(b) 17/15
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT + AA (n = 32) (AT: HT-7, SP-6, GV-24, EX-HN1, PC-6, LR-3, KI-3; AA: Auricular Shenmen/ 6 days a week for 4 weeks, 20–30 min) (b) Drugs (n = 32)
(Diazepam 2.5 mg or estazolam 1 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) PSQI
(2) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine
(1) Significant differences in PSQI scores
(P < 0.05)
(2) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.05)
Liu 2006 [30] 62 (a) 69.9 ± 6.9
(b) 67.5 ± 8.2
(a) 15/17
(b) 15/15
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) AT (n = 32)
(HT-7, SP-6, GV-24, EX-HN1, PC-6, LR-3, KI-3, ST-36/ 5 days a week for 4 weeks, 30 min
(b) Drugs (n = 30)
(Diazepam 2.5 mg or estazolam 1 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) PSQI (1) Significant differences in PSQI scores
(P < 0.05)
Kim 2004 [21] 30 (a) 65.1 ± 9.0
(b) 68.3 ± 10.4
(a) 8/7
(b) 9/6
(a) ISI 21.9 ± 2.0,
AIS 17.1 ± 1.6
(b) ISI 22.3 ± 2.1,
AIS 17.7 ± 2.5
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) IA (n = 15)
(He7, EH6/ once a day for 3 days)
(b) Sham AT
(n = 15)
(1) ISI
(2) AIS
(1) Significant differences in ISI scores
(P < 0.01)
(2) Significant differences in AIS scores
(P < 0.01)
Wang 2004 [31] 64 (a) 42.5 ~ 70.5
(b) 41 ~ 70
(a) 22/12
(b) 17/13
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) n.r.
(b) n.r.
(a) EA + AA (n = 34)
(EA: HT-7, PC-6, CV-12, ST-36, KI-3; AA: Auricular Shenmen/ 5 times a week for 4 weeks, 20–30 min, 40 Hz)
(b) Drugs (n = 30)
(Diazepam 2.5 mg or clozapine 25 mg once a day for 4 weeks)
(1) PSQI
(2) Efficacy standards of Chinese medicine
(1) Significant differences in PSQI scores (P < 0.01)
(2) Significant differences in Effective rates
(P < 0.01)
  1. Notes. AA auricular acupuncture, AIS Athens insomnia sale, AT acupuncture therapy, EA electro-acupuncture, IA intradermal acupuncture, ISI insomnia severity index, n.r not reported, PSQI Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Adverse effects were not reported for any study
\