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Table 2 Visceral adiposity index, abdominal fat, and plasma inflammatory markers in CS, CRP, HCHF and HRP diet-fed rats

From: Red pitaya juice supplementation ameliorates energy balance homeostasis by modulating obesity-related genes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats

Variable CS CRP HCHF HRP P-value
Diet Treatment Interaction
Visceral adiposity index (%) 3.5 ± 0.3bc 4.6 ± 0.5b 6.6 ± 0.6a 7.0 ± 0.5a <0.0001 0.05 0.16
Abdominal fat, mg/mm tibial length        
Retroperitoneal (n = 7–8) 118.9 ± 12.9c 181.7 ± 15.2b 303.7 ± 26.6a 357.7 ± 32.6a <0.0001 0.0217 0.0341
Omental (n = 7–8) 102.5 ± 7.3cd 142.4 ± 12.3cd 173.9 ± 44.0bc 260.3 ± 27.6a <0.0001 0.0141 0.27
Epididymal (n = 7–8) 64.4 ± 7.0cd 101.3 ± 11.4bd 112.1 ± 34.6bc 191.0 ± 13.9a <0.0001 0.0012 0.3
Plasma inflammatory markers        
IL-6 (pg/mL) (n = 7–8) 3.40 ± 0.48a 3.63 ± 0.27a 1.82 ± 0.19b 3.91 ± 0.56a 0.0004 0.0112 <0.0001
TNF-alpha (pg/mL) (n = 7–8) 1.08 ± 0.34b 1.20 ± 0.16b 1.13 ± 0.20b 1.83 ± 0.39a 0.0448 0.13 0.7465
CRP, mg/L (n = 5–8) 0.26 ± 0.04b 0.21 ± 0.004b 0.34 ± 0.07a 0.13 ± 0.02b 0.006 <0.0001 0.6422
  1. Each value is a mean ± S.E.M. Number of repetitive experiments indicated within parenthesis. Means within a row with unlike superscripts letters a, b, c, d differ significantly (p < 0.05). CS, corn starch diet; CRP, corn starch + red pitaya juice; HCHF, high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet; HRP, high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet + red pitaya juice