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Table 2 Analgesic effects of crude alkaloids and standard drugs using tail flick method

From: Scientific investigation of crude alkaloids from medicinal plants for the management of pain

  Time in Sec (Tail Flick)/Response (%)
Treatment/Dose 15 min 30 min 45 min 60 min 75 min 90 min
Control (2 % Tween 80) 0.78 ± 1.30 0.88 ± 1.21 0.98 ± 1.021 0.93 ± 1.381 0.86 ± 1.025 0.92 ± 1.401
Wf Cr.A 50 mg 1.01 ± 1.12* (22.70 %) 1.38 ± 1.112* (36.23 %) 1.68 ± 1.131** (41.66 %) 2.13 ± 1.124** (56.33 %) 2.41 ± 1.163*** (64.31 %) 2.15 ± 1.138*** (57.20 %)
Av Cr.A 50 mg 0.92 ± 1.20 (15.21 %) 1.14 ± 1.411* (22.52 %) 1.41 ± 1.161** (30.49 %) 1.48 ± 1.201** (37.16 %) 1.65 ± 1.206*** (47.87 %) 1.57 ± 1.282*** (41.40 %)
Ca Cr.A 50 mg 0.89 ± 1.30 (12.35 %) 1.09 ± 1.411* (19.85 %) 1.35 ± 1.161** (27.40 %) 1.39 ± 1.231** (33.09 %) 1.53 ± 1.226*** (43.79 %) 1.49 ± 1.218*** (38.25 %)
Vn Cr.A 50 mg 0.90 ± 1.10 (13.81 %) 1.12 ± 1.521* (21.75 %) 1.38 ± 1.611** (28.98 %) 1.40 ± 1.421** (33.80 %) 1.55 ± 1.261*** (44.69 %) 1.51 ± 1.618*** (39.27 %)
Ph Cr.A 50 mg 0.97 ± 0.82 (19.58 %)* 1.23 ± 1.135* (28.45 %) 1.70 ± 1.141** (42.35 %) 2.08 ± 1.511** (55.28 %) 2.33 ± 1.133** (63.09 %) 2.04 ± 1.123** (54.90 %)
Bp Cr.A 50 mg 0.90 ± 0.97 (13.81 %) 1.11 ± 1.411* (20.42 %) 1.37 ± 1.261** (28.46 %) 1.42 ± 1.301** (34.50 %) 1.57 ± 1.237*** (45.22 %) 1.53 ± 1.218*** (39.90 %)
Standard (Morphine 5 mg) 1.54 ± 1.24** (49.35 %) 2.11 ± 1.066** (58.29 %) 4.52 ± 1.038*** (78.31 %) 6.12 ± 1.054*** (84.80 %) 4.98 ± 1.309*** (82.70 %) 4.74 ± 1.074*** (80.59 %)
Wf Cr.A (50 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.82 ± 0.83 0.81 ± 1.165 0.93 ± 1.049 0.99 ± 1.308 0.87 ± 1.029 0.83 ± 1.461
Av Cr.A (50 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.96 ± 0.91 0.86 ± 1.036 0.88 ± 1.131 0.94 ± 1.047 0.89 ± 1.381 0.84 ± 1.069
Ca Cr.A (50 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.84 ± 1.08 0.91 ± 1.044 0.84 ± 1.045 0.89 ± 1.642 0.94 ± 1.263 0.78 ± 1.422
Vn Cr.A (50 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.94 ± 1.03 0.88 ± 1.051 0.81 ± 1.521 0.83 ± 1.342 0.86 ± 1.061 0.87 ± 1.356
Ph Cr.A (50 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.81 ± 0.69 0.96 ± 1.031 1.05 ± 1.271 0.97 ± 1.535 0.91 ± 1.251 0.93 ± 1.034
Bp Cr.A 50 mg + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.88 ± 1.124 0.81 ± 0.89 0.94 ± 1.034 0.86 ± 1.324 0.93 ± 1.304 0.94 ± 1.263
Morphine (5 mg) + Naloxone (2 mg) 0.76 ± 0.82 0.87 ± 1.336 0.96 ± 1.204 0.95 ± 1.641 0.89 ± 1.035 0.97 ± 1.432
  1. All the values were expressed as mean ± SEM. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 and *** P < 0.001 when compared to control group (one way ANOVA followed by Dunnetts: compare all vs control test)
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