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Table 3 Risk of bias assessment of the selected articles

From: Complementary medicine use by the Australian population: a critical mixed studies systematic review of utilisation, perceptions and factors associated with use

Risk of bias assessment External validity Internal validity Score
Representativeness to national population True representation of the target population Random sampling methods Likelihood of nonresponse bias minimal Data directly collected from participants Acceptable case definition Validated study tool used Consistent data collections methods Appropriate prevalence period Appropriate parameters of numerator & denominator Summary of overall risk of study bias
Adams et al., 2003 [27] X X X X X X X X X X   10
Adams et al., 2005 [75] X X X X X X   X X X   9
Adams et al., 2007 [47] X X X X X   X X X X   9
Adams et al., 2011 [49] X X X X X    X X X   8
Adams et al., 2012 [55] X X X X X   X X X X X 10
Adams et al., 2013 [73] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Alderman & Kiepfer, 2003 [86]      X    X X    3
Basedow et al., 2014 [46]    X   X   X X   X   5
Braun & Cohen, 2011 [59]      X X   X   X X 5
Broom et al., 2012a [68] X X X X X   X X X X X 10
Broom et al., 2012b [77] X X X X X   X X X X X 10
Brownie, 2006 [71]   X X   X    X   X   5
Buchbinder et al., 2002 [72]    X X X X   X X   X 7
Canaway & Manderson, 2013 [28]    X   X X X X X X   7
Chatfield et al., 2009 [80]      X X   X X X   5
Correa-Velez et al., 2003 [65]   X   X X X X X   X   7
Correa-Velez et al., 2005 [66]      X    X     2
D’Onise et al., 2013 [31] X X X X X X X X X X X 11
Day, 2002 [82]       X   X   X   3
Day et al., 2004 [39]      X        1
De Visser et al., 2000 [56]      X   X X     3
Dunning, 2003 [38]      X    X     2
Edwards et al., 2014 [35]   X   X X   X X   X   6
Feldman & Laura, 2004 [44]      X    X     2
Field et al., 2008 [57]   X    X    X    X 4
Fong & Fong, 2002 [43]         X   X   2
Forster et al., 2006 [70]     X X   X X   X   5
Frawley et al., 2013 [29] X X X X X X   X X X X 10
George et al., 2004 [60]      X X   X     3
Gollschewski et al., 2004 [87]   X X   X    X   X   5
Heath et al., 2012 [69]         X   X X 3
Hunter et al., 2014 [37]   X    X    X   X X 5
Klafke et al., 2012 [36]   X    X X   X   X   5
Kremser et al., 2008 [53]      X    X    X 3
Leong et al., 2009 [84]   X    X    X    X 4
Lim et al., 2005 [42]       X   X X X   4
MacLennan et al., 2006 [34] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Magin et al., 2006 [63]      X    X     2
Mak & Faux, 2010 [52]   X X   X X   X     5
Markovic et al., 2006 [51]      X X   X     3
Murthy et al.,2014a [74] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Murthy et al., 2014b [95] X X X X X    X X X X 9
O’Callaghan
& Jordan, 2003 [96]
     X    X     2
Patching van der Sluijs, et al., 2007 [50]      X    X X X X 5
Rayner et al., 2009 [54]      X    X     2
Sarris et al., 2010 [76]   X    X    X X    4
Shenfield et al., 2002 [58]   X       X     2
Shorofi & Arbon, 2010 [45]   X    X    X   X   4
Sibbritt et al., 2006 [79] X X X X X   X X X X   9
Sibbritt et al., 2013 [62] X X X X X   X X X X   9
Sinha & Efron, 2005 [40]   X       X   X   3
Skouteris et al., 2008 [97]   X    X    X X   X 5
Smith & Eckert, 2006 [67]   X   X X    X X X   6
Smith et al., 2013 [85]   X    X    X X X X 6
Spinks et al., 2014 [83] X X X   X   X X X X X 9
Stankiewicz et al., 2007 [48]   X    X    X X   X 5
Steel et al., 2012 [64] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Steel et al., 2014a [98] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Steel et al., 2014b [99] X X X X X    X X X X 9
Trutnovsky et al., 2001 [78]      X    X     2
Wadhera et al., 2011 [41]   X   X   X   X   X   5
Wilkinson & Simpson, 2001 [32]    X   X    X X    4
Wilkinson & Jelinek, 2009 [33]      X   X X X    4
Xue et al., 2007 [30] X X X   X    X X   X 7