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Table 3 Parameters of indirect calorimetry at the end of experiment

From: The combination of Artemisia princeps Pamp, Leonurus japonicas Houtt, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit attenuates the exacerbation of energy, lipid, and glucose by increasing hepatic PGC-1α expression in estrogen-deficient rats

  Control (n = 12) APP (n = 12) APP + LJH (n = 12) APP + LJH + GJE (n = 12) Positive-control (n = 12)
Caloric intakes (Kcal/day) 95.4 ± 10 104 ± 11 103 ± 11 103 ± 10 92 ± 10
Energy expenditure (kcal/ kg0.75/day) 106 ± 12c 111 ± 11bc 119 ± 12b 137 ± 13a 131 ± 13a
Respiratory quotient 0.84 ± 0.11 0.81 ± 0.10 0.82 ± 0.09 0.80 ± 0.09 0.79 ± 0.09
Carbohydrate oxidation (mg/ kg0.75/min) 5.3 ± 0.7a 4.3 ± 0.6b 4.8 ± 0.6ab 4.5 ± 0.5b 4.1 ± 0.6b
Fat oxidation (mg/ kg0.75/min) 6.2 ± 0.8c 7.6 ± 0.8b 8.0 ± 0.9b 10.3 ± 1.2a 9.7 ± 1.1a
  1. Control, OVX rats fed a high-fat diet (OVX-CON) with 2 % dextrin; APP, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Artemisia princeps Pamp water extract; LJH, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Leonurus japonicas Houtt water extract; GJE, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 2 % Gardenia jasminoides Ellis water extract; positive-control, OVX rats fed a high fat diet with 30 μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol + 2 % dextrose. Values are mean ± SD
  2. a,b,c Significantly different among all groups by Tukey test at p < 0.05