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Table 1 Effects of rutin on intestinal pH, total acidity, free acidity and CMDI induced by MTX in rats

From: Rutin attenuates intestinal toxicity induced by Methotrexate linked with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects

Groups Treatment pH (mEq/l) Total acidity Free acidity (mEq/l) CMDI
Group-I Sham control (Normal saline, 3.0 ml/kg) 7.15 ± 0.01 11.02 ± 0.61 7.47 ± 0.61 0.33 ± 0.15
Group-II Toxic control (MTX, 2.5 mg/kg) 6.32 ± 0.04a 15.06 ± 0.80a 11.46 ± 0.58a 4.08 ± 0.05a
Group-III Rutin (50 mg/kg) 7.67 ± 0.03***a 11.74 ± 0.69**
(22.05 %)
8.45 ± 0.57***
(26.20 %)
1.17 ± 0.41***c (58.25 %)
Group-IV Rutin + MTX(50 + 2.5 mg/kg) 7.44 ± 0.02***a 12.68 ± 0.87***
(15.74 %)
11.14 ± 0.60a
(2.70 %)
1.67 ± 0.52***a
(58.32 %)
Group-V Rutin (100 mg/kg) 7.81 ± 0.01***a 11.06 ± 0.38***
(26.57 %)
8.70 ± 0.31***
(24.01 %)
1.17 ± 0.52***c
(58.25 %)
Group-VI Rutin + MTX (100 + 2.5 mg/kg) 7.21 ± 0.01*** 12.75 ± 0.85***
(15.28 %)
10.13 ± 0.71b
(11.52 %)
2.50 ± 0.55***a
(37.50 %)
  1. Each group contains six animals. Values are represented as mean ± SEM
  2. Statistical significance compared to toxic control using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test
  3. (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001). Values in parenthesis represent percentage inhibition
  4. Statistical significance compared to sham control using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test
  5. c P < 0.05, b P < 0.01 and a P < 0.001 were considered statistically significant