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Table 6 MIC (FIC) of different antibiotics after the association of the extract of Moringa oleifera at MIC/2, MIC/4 against ten MDR bacteria strains

From: Antibacterial and antibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants (Xanthosoma mafaffa Lam., Moringa oleifera (L.) Schott and Passiflora edulis Sims) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria

Antibiotics Bacterial strains, MIC (μg/mL) of antibiotics in the absence and presence of the extract
Extract concentration PA124 AG100 AG102 AG100Atet EA27 EA289 CM64 KP55 KP63 NEA16 PBSS (%)
CIP 0 16 0.50 0.50 - 1 1 0.50 2 - 1  
CMI/2 32(2)I 0.50(1)I 0.50(1)I -(na) 1(1)I 0.50(0.50) S 4(8)A <0.50(na) S -(na) 1(1)I 20
CMI/4 32(2)I 0.50(1)I 0.50(1)I -(na) 1(1)I 0.50(0.50) S 8(16)A <0.50(na) S -(na) 1(1)I 20
NOR 0 128 2 1 - 4 8 4 16 - 4  
CMI/2 128(1)I 2(1)I <1(na) S -(na) 4(1)I 4(0.50) S 64(16)A 8(0.50) S -(na) 2(0.50) S 40
CMI/4 128(1)I 2(1)I <1(na) S -(na) 4(1)I 4(0.50) S 128(32)A 16(1)I -(na) 2(0.50) S 30
CHL 0 64 4 8 64 64 64 256 64 - 32  
CMI/2 32(0.50) S 4(1)I 1(0.13) S 64(1)I 32(0.50) S 32(0.50) S 128(0.50) S 2(0.03) S -(na) 32(1)I 60
CMI/4 64(1)I 4(1)I 2(0.25) S 64(1)I 32(0.50) S 32(0.50) S 256(1)I 4(0.06) S -(na) 32(1)I 40
ERY 0 128 0.50 0.50 - 16 16 256 32 - 32  
CMI/2 128(1)I <0.50(na) S <0.50(na) S 128(na) S 8(0.50) S 8(0.50) S 128(0.50) S 1(0.03) S 128(na) S 16(0.50) S 90
CMI/4 128(1)I <0.50(na) S <0.50(na) S 128(na) S 8(0.50) S 8(0.50) S 256(1)I 4(0.13) S 128(na) S 16(0.50) S 80
KAN 0 64 0.50 0.50 2 8 32 4 16 - 16  
CMI/2 32(0.50) S <0.50(na) S <0.50(na) S <0.50(na) S 1(0.13) S 2(0.06) S 8(2)I 4(0.25) S -(na) 4(0.25) S 80
CMI/4 64(1)I <0.50(na) S <0.50(na) S 1(0.50) S 2(0.25) S 4(0.13) S 256(64)A 8(0.50) S -(na) 8(0.50) S 70
TET 0 16 32 2 64 32 32 8 2 8 32  
CMI/2 16(1)I 16(0.50) S 1(0.50) S 8(0.13) S 16(0.50) S 4(0.13) S 8(1)I <0.50(na) S 4(0.50) S 8(0.25) S 80
CMI/4 16(1)I 32(1)I 1(0.50) S 8(0.13) S 16(0.50) S 4(0.13) S 64(8)A <0.50(na) S 4(0.50) S 8(0.25) S 70
AMP 0 - - 128 - - - - - - -  
CMI/2 -(na) -(na) 128(1)I -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) 00
CMI/4 -(na) -(na) 128(1)I -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) 00
CEF 0 - 64 32 - - - - - - -  
CMI/2 -(na) 64(1)I 32(1)I -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) 00
CMI/4 -(na) 64(1)I 32(1)I -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) -(na) 00
  1. aAntibiotics [TET tetracycline, CIP ciprofloxacin, NOR norfloxacin, KAN kanamycin, CHL chloramphenicol, ERY erythromycin, AMP ampicillin, CEF: cefepime]
  2. bBacterial strains: Escherichia coli [AG100, AG102, AG100Atet], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [PA124], Enterobacter aerogenes [CM64, EA27, EA289], Klebsiella pneumonia [KP55], Providencia stuartii [NAE16]
  3. cPBSS: percentage of bacteria strain on which synergism has been observed; (): FIC (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) of the antibiotics after association with plants extract; S: Synergy, I: Indifference; na: not applicable; The values in bold represent the cases of synergy between extract and antibiotic; (-): >256 μg/mL