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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the studies

From: Effect of acustimulation on nausea and vomiting and on hyperemesis in pregnancy: a systematic review of Western and Chinese literature

1st author, year Design, number of arms Population (n), gestational age Outcomes Participants (n), intervention dose, frequency, treatment duration
Country Treatment group Placebo control group
Acupressure finger  
Dundee 1988 Ireland [36] qRCT, 3 350, 6–14 w NVP 119, PC6 112, sham, dummy point near right elbow 5 min every 4 h, 4 days
119, control: no treatment
Belluomini 1994 California, US [37] RCT, 2 60, ≤ 12 w NVP 30, PC6 30, sham, placebo point 10 min, 4×/d, for 7 days
Shin 2007 South Korea [2] qRCT, 3 66, 5–30 w HG 23, PC6 + IV fluid therapy 21, sham control, a bony part around the radial pulse + IV fluid therapy 10 min, 3×/d before meal from day 2 - day of discharge (mean 5–7 days)
22, control, only conventional IV fluid therapy
Rad 2012 Iran [22] RCT, 2 80, first trimester NVP 40, pressure thumb of researcher on the two symmetrical KID21 points + Vit B 6 40 mg 40, pressure thumb of researcher on a false point + Vit B 6 40 mg 20 min/d for 4 days + Vit B 6 40 mg
Jiang 2012 China [3] RCT, 2 130, 5–10, 7 w HG 65, PC6 + IV fluid therapy + ear acupressure stomach, spleen, duodenum, liver, shen men, heart 65, IV fluid therapy 10 min, 3×/d before meal of nausea for 7 days
Control: 3–7 days
Acupressure band  
O’Brien 1996 Canada [9] RCT, 3 161, 4.6–23.6 w NVP 54, PC6 53, sham: acupressure band inappropriately placed 54, control: no treatment Band applied for 5 days, removed morning of day 6
Norheim 2001a Norway [38] RCT, 2 97, 8–12 w NVP 48, PC6 49, placebo, wristband with felt patch, no button PC6 24 h/d, 4 day run-in, 4 day intervention, 4 day follow-up, 12d
Steele 2001 Michigan, US [39] qRCT, 2 110, ≤ 13 w NVP 68, PC6 42, placebo, PC6 without acupressure buttons Continuously on both wrists for 4 days, remove only when bathing
Werntoft 2001 Sweden [5] RCT, 3 60, mean 10 w NVP 20, PC6 20, sham: button on upper side of wrist On for 24 h, only not when showering, for 14 days
20, control: no treatment
Heazell 2006 Australia [27] RCT, 2 80, 5–14 w HG 40, PC6 40, sham: a site on the dorsal aspect of the forearm 8 h a day, from 9 AM to 5 PM, length of inpatient stay (mean 3.4)
Jamigorn 2007 Thailand [40] RCT, 2 66, 6–12 w NVP 33, PC6 + placebo tablets 33, sham: wristband on dummy-point + 50 mg tablets of Vit B6 Bands: continuously for 5 days
Tablets: every 12 h for 5 days
Can Gurkan 2008 Turkey [20] QRCT, 3 75, 5–20 w NVP 26, PC6 24, sham: upper side wrist Daytime, taken off at night; no bands day 1–3, bands on day 4–6, no bands day 7–9, for 9 days
25, control: no treatment
Saberi 2013 Iran [6] RCT, 3 143, ≤ 16 w NVP 48, PC6 50, ginger caps Nothing on day 1–3, treatment on day 4–7
45, control: no treatment PC6: continuously bilateral
Ginger caps: 3×/day
Acupuncture  
Knight 2001 UK [35] RCT, 2 55, 6–10 w NVP 28, needling PC6, St 36, Ren 12, SP4, St 44 27, cocktail sticks on bony regions near acupoint Needles left during 15 min, 2× in first week, then 1×/ week for 2 weeks
Smith 2002 Australia [10] RCT, 4 593, ≤ 14 w NVP 148, maximum 6 various points based on TCM diagnosis 148, PC6 Needles left during 20 min, 2× in first week, then weekly, for 4 weeks.
148, sham: close to acupoints
149, control: no treatment
Neri 2005 Italy [8] RCT, 2 81, ≤ 12 w HG 43, needling PC6, CV12, ST 36, + acupressure PC6 38, metoclopramide infusion + Vit B12 complex(30 mg/day) Acupuncture: 20 min, 2×/ week + acupressure for 6–8 h/day, for 2 weeks.
Metoclopramide: infusion 2×/week + vit. B12, for 2 weeks.
Zhang 2005 China [26] RCT, 3 150, 6–12 w HG 50, needling + moxibustion CV12, PC6, ST36, SP9 50, Chinese drug group: Acup: 10–15 min, 2×/d, for 7 days
Suye Huanglian decoction Chinese drug: 2×/d, 7d
50, Western medicine: IV fluid therapy + phenobarbital Western drug: daily, 7d
Liu 2007 China [29] RCT, 2 94, early pregnancy HG 47, needling: scalp, stomach area, CV12, PC6, ST36 + IV fluid therapy 47, control: IV fluid therapy 1×/d for 10 days
Wang 2008 China [34] RCT, 2 95, early pregnancy HG 53, CV17, CV12, SP6, PC6, ST36 42, control: IV fluid therapy Acupuncture: 30 min, 1×/d, 6d
Control: 1×/d, 6d
Mao 2009 China [33] RCT, 3 90, 6–12 w HG 30, IV fluid therapy + needling BL11, ST37, PC6, SP4, CV12, ST36 30, Western medicine: IV fluid therapy + luminal 30 mg Each group IV fluid therapy Acup: 25 min, 2×/d for 7 days
30, Chinese drug group: IV fluid therapy + Chinese herbal decoction Western medicine: 3×/d for 7 days
Chinese drug group: 3×/d for 7 days
Liu 2011 China [41] RCT, 2 60, early pregnancy HG 30, needling CV12, PC6, ST36 30, moxibustion ST36, CV12, PC6, SP4 15–20 min, 1×/d for 10 days
Ma 2013 China [30] RCT, 2 60, early pregnancy HG 30, CV12, BL21 + IV fluid therapy 30, IV fluid therapy Acupuncture: 20 min, 1×/d for 5 days
IV fluid therapy: 1×/d, for 5 days
Auricular acupressure  
Ou 2001 China [42] RCT, 3 90, early pregnancy NVP Group 1: 30, ear acupressure: diaphragm (bilateral), shen men, kidney + Chinese herbal medicine 30, group 2: ear acupressure: diaphragm (bilateral), shen men, kidney Group 1: acupressure: 10 min, 3×/d + herbs 3×/d, for 7 days
30, group 3: Chinese herbal medicine Group 2: acupressure: 10 min, 3×/d, for 7 days
Group 3: herbs: 3×/d for 7 days
Puangsricharern 2008 Thailand [7] RCT, 2 91, ≤ 14 w NVP 45, magnet pellets, placed at both auricles 46, no treatment, 6d 30 s, 4×/day before meals and at bedtime, day 3-day 6
Li 2010 China [31] RCT, 3 141, 5–30 w HG 47, ear acupoints: stomach, spleen, duodenum, liver, shen men, heart,+ needling CV 12, PC6, ST36 47, PC6 acupressure Ear acupressure: 3×/d before meals or in case of nausea
47, IV fluid therapy Acupuncture: 30 min, 1×/d for 10 days
PC6 acupressure: 10 min, 3×/d before meals or nausea, for 10 days
Liu 2012 China [32] RCT, 2 54, mean 8 w HG 27, pylorus, stomach, spleen, esophagus, duodenum, liver, heart, subcortex, shen men, jiao gan. 27, fasting for 2–3 d, rest, Bilateral, 2 min, 15 min before meal, 3×/d for 7 days
IV fluid therapy
Moxa  
Fan 1995 China [11] RCT, 2 302, >2 m NVP 151, moxa SP6, CV4 ST36, Li3 151, chinese herbal decoction 5–10 min, 1×/d for 7 days
Herbs:1×/d for 7 days
Xu 2009 China [12] RCT, 2 51, early pregnancy HG 26, IV fluid therapy + moxa ST36, CV12, PC6, SP4 25, IV fluid therapy Moxa: 15–20 min, 1–2×/d
IV fluid 1×/d, for 10 days
Lu 2012 China [13] RCT, 2 64, 38–80 d HG 32, IV fluid therapy + citicoline 500 mg + moxa ST36, CV12, PC6 32, IV fluid therapy + citicoline 500 mg IV fluid: 1×/d
Moxa: 20 min, 2×/d for 5 days
  1. NVP Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, HG Hyperemesis gravidarum; aBased on the review van Helmreich [4]: n = 48/49