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Table 3 Outcome measures used to assess the LEAP project

From: Evaluation of a spirituality informed e-mental health tool as an intervention for major depressive disorder in adolescents and young adults – a randomized controlled pilot trial

Outcome Younger group (13–18 years of age)
Instrument Score Interpretation Reference
Depression Children’s Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS –R) ↑ score = ↑ depression Poznanski E & Mokros H, [47]
A raw score of 40 or more is indicative of depression.
Self-Concept Piers Harris 2 ↑ score = improved self-concept Piers E & Herzberg D, [48]
T-score ranges: < 29 is very low; 30–39 is low; 40–44 is low average, 45–55 is average; >56 is above average
Scores below 44 indicate low self-concept and 45–55 reflect average self-concept.
Spiritual well being Spiritual and Well-Being Scale (SWBS) ↑ score = ↑ spiritual well-being Paloutzian R & Ellison C, [49]
Scores of 40 or lower indicate low overall spiritual well-being.
  Older group (19–24 years of age)
  Instrument Score Interpretation References
Depression Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) ↑ score = ↑ depression Williams et al., [50]
Lower scores indicate improvement.
Scores of 12–19 indicate mild to moderate major depressive disorder.
Self-Concept 6-Factor Rating Scale (SFSCS) ↑ score = improved self-concept Stake L, 1994 [51] Yanico B & Lu T, [52]
Spiritual well-being SIBS – Spiritual Involvement and Belief Scale ↑ score = ↑ spiritual well-being Hatch et al., [53]