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Fig. 3 | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fig. 3

From: Selenium added unripe carica papaya pulp extracts enhance wound repair through TGF-β1 and VEGF-a signalling pathway

Fig. 3

Events controlled by Se2+ added papaya extract in cutaneous wound healing cascade. Se2+ added papaya PBS extract treatment results in the transient up-regulation of (TGF-β and VEGFA at earlier phase of healing (Fig. 2) and consequently results in increased fibroblasts recruitment (Fig. 1b, d) and angiogenesis (Table 2). The expression of TGF-β in turn promotes synthesis of collagen and ground substances while expression of VEGF promotes new blood vessel formation through angiogenesis. Se2+ added papaya PBS extract either stops or reduces further PMNL infiltration (Fig. 1a, c) at the wound area thus subsides inflammatory reactions. All together these contribute to accelerated and improved wound healing without inflammation at later stages

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