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Table 4 Change in drug prescriptions and cost of drugs during 180 days before/after first observed inpatient visit with diagnosis F43 for the integrative care and conventional care cohorts

From: Usage and cost of first-line drugs for patients referred to inpatient anthroposophic integrative care or inpatient conventional care for stress-related mental disorders—a register based study

  Integrative Care (N=161) Conventional Care (N=1571) Conventional-Integrative Conventional-Integrative
  Change from 180-days before to 180-days after index visit Difference in change between groups Effect size (Cohen’s d)
DDDs/patient
ATC-N05A −0.2 (−1.6 to 1.2), p = 0.767 2.0 (0.5 to 3.5), p = 0.004 2.2 (−2.4 to 6.8), p = 0.351 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)
ATC-N05B −15.3 (−26.7 to −3.8), p = 0.004 27.2 (20.3 to 34.1), p < 0.001 42.5 (20.6 to 64.4), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
ATC-N05C −3.8 (−6.4 to −1.2), p = 0.002 12.3 (10.1 to 14.5), p < 0.001 16.1 (9.2 to 22.9), p < 0.001 0.4 (0.2 to 0.5)
ATC-N06A −7.4 (−18.4 to 3.5), p = 0.091 22.5 (17.4 to 27.5), p < 0.001 29.9 (13.7 to 46.1), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
Cost/patient (EUR)
ATC-N05A 12.8 (−13.9 to 39.5), p = 0.345 25.7 (14.8 to 36.5), p < 0.001 12.9 (−22.1 to 47.8), p = 0.471 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2)
ATC-N05B −2.8 (−4.7 to −0.8), p = 0.003 4.5 (3.0 to 6.0), p < 0.001 7.2 (2.5 to 12.0), p = 0.003 0.3 (0.1 to 0.4)
ATC-N05C −2.7 (−4.6 to −0.9), p = 0.002 5.4 (3.9 to 6.9), p < 0.001 8.1 (3.5 to 12.7), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
ATC-N06A −12.6 (−31.1 to 5.9), p = 0.181 27.9 (21.3 to 34.6), p < 0.001 40.5 (18.9 to 62.1), p < 0.001 0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)
  1. DDD, Defined daily dose. EUR, euro. Drug categories according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system: N05A, antipsychotics; N05B, anxiolytics; N05C, hypnotics and sedatives; and N06A, antidepressants. Average (95 % confidence interval), p values; Analyses by t-tests (two tailed). Cohen’s d: small 0.2, medium 0.5, large 0.8